Jul 16, 2013

Different selective pressures shape the evolution of Toll-like receptors in human and African great ape populations

Human Molecular Genetics
Hélène QuachLluis Quintana-Murci

Abstract

The study of the genetic and selective landscape of immunity genes across primates can provide insight into the existing differences in susceptibility to infection observed between human and non-human primates. Here, we explored how selection has driven the evolution of a key family of innate immunity receptors, the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), in African great ape species. We sequenced the 10 TLRs in various populations of chimpanzees and gorillas, and analysed these data jointly with a human data set. We found that purifying selection has been more pervasive in great apes than in humans. Furthermore, in chimpanzees and gorillas, purifying selection has targeted TLRs irrespectively of whether they are endosomal or cell surface, in contrast to humans where strong selective constraints are restricted to endosomal TLRs. These observations suggest important differences in the relative importance of TLR-mediated pathogen sensing, such as that of recognition of flagellated bacteria by TLR5, between humans and great apes. Lastly, we used a population genetics-phylogenetics method that jointly analyses polymorphism and divergence data to detect fine-scale variation in selection pressures at specific codons within TLR genes. We identifi...Continue Reading

Mentioned in this Paper

Mastigophora
Pongidae
Genome
Pathogenic Organism
Hominidae
Gorilla <Eastern Gorilla>
Phylogeny
Pan troglodytes
Codon (Nucleotide Sequence)
Cell Surface

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

LRRK2 & Immunity During Infection

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.

Meningococcal Myelitis

Meningococcal myelitis is characterized by inflammation and myelin damage to the meninges and spinal cord. Discover the latest research on meningococcal myelitis here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease by recent genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research.

Related Papers

The Journal of Experimental Medicine
Jeremy ManryLluis Quintana-Murci
American Journal of Human Genetics
Estelle VasseurLluis Quintana-Murci
Molecular Biology and Evolution
Gabriela Wlasiuk, Michael W Nachman
© 2020 Meta ULC. All rights reserved