Differential effects of the 1,4 and 1,5 benzodiazepines on performance in healthy man

British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
A N Nicholson

Abstract

1 The immediate and residual effects on performance of benzodiazepines differ, and the differences are important in the use of these drugs. 2. Diazepam and its hydroxylated metabolites, temazepam and oxazepam, each possess hypnotic activity, and have effects on performance limited to the sleep period. The demethylated metabolite of diazepam, nordiazepam, and its precursor, potassium clorazepate, which also possess hypnotic activity, have a longer duration of action, although the next day anxiolytic effect is accompanied by only minimal effects on performance. The 1.5 benzodiazepine, clobazam, seems to have minimal immediate effects on performance. 3 Diazepam and its hydroxylated metabolites, temazepam and oxazepam, would be useful in the management of insomnia without psychopathology in those cases in which residual effects on performance must be avoided. Nordiazepam and potassium clorazepate would be appropriate for insomnia secondary to day-time anxiety, and clobazam may be useful as a day-time anxiolytic. 4 It is emphasized that more work needs to be carried out on the effects of anxiolytics on performance before one can be certain that ingestion during the day would be without any deleterious effects on skilled work.

References

Jun 1, 1976·British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology·A N NicholsonH M Ferres
Feb 1, 1977·British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology·R G Borland, A N Nicholson
Oct 1, 1978·British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology·C H Clarke, A N Nicholson
May 1, 1978·British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology·A N Nicholson, B M Stone
Apr 1, 1976·British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology·J HartA W Peck
Apr 1, 1966·The American Journal of Psychiatry·A L FrostadC B Bakker
Jan 1, 1974·Psychopharmacologia·M TansellaM H Lader
Aug 1, 1976·British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology·A N NicholsonC H Clarke
Aug 1, 1976·British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology·A N Nicholson, B M Stone
Jun 1, 1974·British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology·R G Borland, A N Nicholson

Citations

Jan 1, 1992·European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology·G W KunsmanC M Kunsman
Jan 1, 1987·Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry·W C AlphertsR C Moerland
Jan 1, 1979·British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology·B S MeldrumR W Horton
Jan 1, 1979·British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology·G W Hanks
Dec 17, 2014·Journal of Medical Case Reports·Raman SankarSaurabh Sinha
Jul 2, 2004·Therapeutic Drug Monitoring·Jean-Pierre Goullé, Jean-Pierre Anger
Apr 9, 2010·Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers·Maria T EkonomopoulouZafiroula Iakovidou-Kritsi

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