Differentiation of organ availability by sequential and simultaneous analyses: intestinal conjugative metabolism impacts on intestinal availability in humans

Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
T MizumaMasahiro Hayashi


The impact of intestinal conjugative metabolism on oral bioavailability was assessed by sequential and simultaneous analyses of the reported data in humans. The data were retrieved from reports on drugs that are metabolized by sulfate conjugation, and the organ availabilities affecting oral bioavailability were differentiated. Sequential analysis gave the following results. The intestinal availability (Fg) of salbutamol was 0.700, whereas hepatic availability (Fh) and bioavailability (F) were 0.893 and 0.493, respectively. Fg of (+)-terbutaline, (-)-terbutaline, and (+/-)-terbutaline was 0.128, 0.254, and 0.250, respectively. In contrast, Fh of (+)-terbutaline, (-)-terbutaline, and (+/-)-terbutaline was 0.979, 0.971, and 0.946, respectively. Fg and Fh of ethynylestradiol were 0.536 and 0.780, respectively. Simultaneous analysis also gave similar results, although the sequential analysis overestimated the intestinal availability. These results indicate that intestinal sulfation metabolism has more impact on intestinal availability than on hepatic availability, resulting in low bioavailability in humans.


Jan 1, 1989·British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology·L BorgströmJ Paulson
Nov 1, 1986·British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology·D J MorganS P Ziccone
Aug 1, 1981·The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology·D BrewsterM A Mcleavy
Jan 1, 1993·European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology·G M PacificiL Giuliani
Oct 26, 2000·European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology·M VietriG M Pacifici

❮ Previous
Next ❯


Sep 15, 2009·Nihon yakurigaku zasshi. Folia pharmacologica Japonica·Takashi Mizuma
Oct 6, 2011·Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics·Takako FurukawaToshio Teramura
Oct 4, 2007·The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology·Urban Fagerholm
Aug 7, 2013·Drug Metabolism and Disposition : the Biological Fate of Chemicals·Fredrik H KarlssonSheila Annie Peters
Apr 1, 2010·Drug Metabolism and Disposition : the Biological Fate of Chemicals·Keitaro KadonoToshio Teramura
Apr 7, 2009·Aging & Mental Health·Norm O'RourkeYaacov G Bachner

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.


Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.