Discovery of ongoing selective sweeps within Anopheles mosquito populations using deep learning

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Alexander T. XueAg1000G Consortium

Abstract

Identification of partial sweeps, which include both hard and soft sweeps that have not currently reached fixation, provides crucial information about ongoing evolutionary responses. To this end, we introduce a deep learning approach that uses a convolutional neural network for image processing, which is trained with coalescent simulations incorporating population-specific history, to discover selective sweeps from population genomic data. This approach distinguishes between completed versus partial sweeps, hard versus soft sweeps, and regions directly affected by selection versus those merely linked to nearby selective sweeps. We perform several simulation experiments under various demographic scenarios to demonstrate the performance of our deep learning classifier partialS/HIC , which exhibits unprecedented resolution for detecting partial sweeps. We also apply our method to whole genomes from eight mosquito populations sampled across sub-Saharan Africa by the Anopheles gambiae 1000 Genomes Consortium, elucidating both continent-wide patterns as well as sweeps unique to specific geographic regions. These populations have experienced intense insecticide exposure over the past two decades, and we observe a strong overrepresenta...Continue Reading

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