DNA phosphorothioate modification facilitates the dissemination of mcr-1 and blaNDM-1 in drinking water supply systems

Environmental Pollution
Hira KhanXiaohui Bai

Abstract

The mechanism driving the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in drinking water supply systems (DWSSs) with multiple barriers remains poorly understood despite several recent efforts. Phosphorothioate (PT) modifications, governed by dndABCDE genes, occur naturally in various bacteria and involve the incorporation of sulfur into the DNA backbone. PT is regarded as a mild antioxidant in vivo and is known to provide protection against bacterial genomes. We combined quantitative polymerase chain reaction, metagenomic, and network analyses for the water treatment process and laboratory-scale experiments for chlorine treatment using model strains to determine if DNA PT modification occurred in DWSS and facilitated the dissemination of mobilized colistin resistance-1 (mcr-1) and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (blaNDM-1) in DWSS. Our results indicated that the relative abundance of dndB increased in the effluent, compared with the influent, in the water treatment plants. Presence of dndB copies had a positive correlation with the concentration of chloramine disinfectant. Network analysis revealed Bdellovibrio as a potential host for MCR genes, NDM genes, and dndB in the DWSS. E. coli DH10B (Wild-type with the dndABCDE ...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

Antibiotics
Antioxidants
Colistin
DNA
Water Consumption
Escherichia coli
Gene Clusters
Genes
Laboratory Procedures
Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic

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