Dopamine in Parkinson's disease.

Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Saad LatifMohammad Azam Ansari


Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the death of neurons, ie, cells critical to the production of dopamine, an important neurotransmitter in the brain. Here, we present a brief review of the dopamine synthetic pathway, binding to the dopamine receptors, and subsequent action. The production of dopamine (a monoamine neurotransmitter) occurs in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the substantia nigra, specifically in the hypothalamic nucleus and midbrain. Compared to other monoamines, dopamine is widely distributed in the olfactory bulb, midbrain substantia nigra, hypothalamus, VTA, retina, and the periaqueductal gray area. Dopamine receptors are large G-protein coupled receptor family members, of which there are five subtypes including D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5. These subtypes are further divided into two subclasses: D1-like family receptors (types 1 and 5) and D2-like family receptors (types 2, 3, and 4). Four different pathways and functions of the dopaminergic system are presented in this review. In the oxidation of dopamine, 5,6-indolequinone, dopamine-o-quinone, and aminochrome are formed. It is difficult to separate the roles of 5,6-indolequinone and dopamine-o-quinone in the degenerative process of P...Continue Reading


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