Aug 14, 2019

Dose-response and transmission: the nexus between reservoir hosts, environment and recipient hosts

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Tamika J LunnHamish McCallum

Abstract

Dose is the nexus between exposure and all upstream processes that determine pathogen pressure, and is thereby an important element underlying disease dynamics. Understanding the relationship between dose and disease is particularly important in the context of spillover, where nonlinearities in the dose-response could determine the likelihood of transmission. There is a need to explore dose-response models for directly transmitted and zoonotic pathogens, and how these interactions integrate within-host factors to consider, for example, heterogeneity in host susceptibility and dose-dependent antagonism. Here, we review the dose-response literature and discuss the unique role dose-response models have to play in understanding and predicting spillover events. We present a re-analysis of dose-response experiments for two important zoonotic pathogens (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Nipah virus), to exemplify potential difficulties in differentiating between appropriate models with small exposure experiment datasets. We also discuss the data requirements needed for robust selection between dose-response models. We then suggest how these processes could be modelled to gain more realistic predictions of zoonotic trans...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Nipah Virus
Environment
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (Mers)
Dose-response Relationship
Molecular_function
Disease Susceptibility
Zoonoses
Disease Transmission
Literature
Science of Virology

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