Mar 15, 2019

Double emulsions for iron encapsulation: is a high concentration of lipophilic emulsifier ideal for physical and chemical stability?

Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Patrícia Duque-EstradaClaire Berton-Carabin


Worldwide iron deficiency in diets has led to a growing interest in the development of food-compatible encapsulation systems for soluble iron, which are able to prevent iron's undesirable off-taste and pro-oxidant activity. Here, we explore the use of double emulsions for this purpose, and in particular, how the lipophilic emulsifier (polyglycerol polyricinoleate, PGPR) concentration influences the physicochemical stability of water-in-oil-in-water (W1 /O/W2 ) double emulsions containing ferrous sulphate in the inner water droplets. Double emulsions were prepared with sunflower oil containing 10 to 70 g kg-1 PGPR in the oil phase, and were monitored for droplet size distribution, morphology, encapsulation efficiency (EE) and oxidative stability over time. Fresh double emulsions showed an initial EE higher than 88%, but EE decreased upon storage, which occurred particularly fast and to a high extent in the emulsions prepared with low PGPR concentrations. All double emulsions underwent lipid oxidation, in particular those with the highest PGPR concentration, which could be due to the small inner droplet size and thus promoted contact between oil and the internal water phase. These results show that a too high PGPR concentration i...Continue Reading

  • References16
  • Citations1


  • References16
  • Citations1


Mentioned in this Paper

Lipid Droplet
Energy Metabolism
Oxidation Activity [MoA]
Iron Deficiency
Adverse Effects
Sunflower seed oil

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Synthetic Genetic Array Analysis

Synthetic genetic arrays allow the systematic examination of genetic interactions. Here is the latest research focusing on synthetic genetic arrays and their analyses.

Epigenetic Memory

Epigenetic memory refers to the heritable genetic changes that are not explained by the DNA sequence. Find the latest research on epigenetic memory here.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.