Oct 23, 2019

Double-stranded RNA deaminase ADAR1 promotes the Zika virus replication by inhibiting the activation of protein kinase PKR

The Journal of Biological Chemistry
Shili ZhouPing Zhang

Abstract

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has emerged as a threat to global health. The family of adenosine deaminases acting on dsRNA (ADARs) are human host factors important for the genetic diversity and evolution of ZIKV. Here, we further investigated the role of ADAR1 in ZIKV replication by utilizing CRISPR/Cas9-based gene editing and RNAi-based gene knockdown techniques. Both ADAR1 knockout and knockdown significantly reduced ZIKV RNA synthesis, protein levels, and viral titers in several human cell lines. Trans-complementation with the full-length ADAR1 form p150 or the shorter form p110 lacking the Zα domain restored viral replication levels suppressed by the ADAR1 knockout. Moreover, we observed that the nuclear p110 form was redistributed to the cytoplasm in response to ZIKV infection. ADAR1 was not involved in viral entry but promoted viral protein translation by impairing ZIKV-induced activation of protein kinase regulated by dsRNA (PKR). Of note, the RNA-editing activity of ADAR1 was not required to promote ZIKV replication. We also found that the proviral role of ADAR1 was partially mediated through its ability to suppress IFN production and PKR activation. Our work identifies ADAR1 as a proviral factor...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

ADAR
Gene Knockdown Techniques
Virus
RNA Chemical Synthesis
Gene Editing
Regulation of Biological Process
RNA, Double-Stranded
Knock-out
Virus Replication
Interferons

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