Drug interactions with oral antidiabetic agents: pharmacokinetic mechanisms and clinical implications

Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Aleksi TornioJanne T Backman

Abstract

There is a growing epidemic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and it is associated with various comorbidities. Patients with T2DM are usually treated with multiple drugs, and are therefore at an increased risk of harmful drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Several potentially life-threatening DDIs concerning oral antidiabetic drugs have been identified. This has mostly been initiated by case reports but, more recently, the understanding of their mechanisms has greatly increased. In this article, we review the pharmacokinetic DDIs concerning oral antidiabetics, including metformin, sulfonylureas, meglitinide analogs, thiazolidinediones and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and the underlying mechanistic basis that can help to predict and prevent DDIs. In particular, the roles of membrane transporters and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in these DDIs are discussed.

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