Drug metabolism by the gastrointestinal mucosa

Clinical Pharmacokinetics
C F George

Abstract

Circumstantial evidence for first-pass metabolism across the gastrointestinal mucosa includes reduced bioavailability after oral administration, despite complete or good absorption. There may also be route-dependent variation in the pattern of metabolism with the latter occurring to a greater extent after oral administration than after parenteral injection. However, direct proof that first-pass metabolism takes place across the gastrointestinal mucosa relies upon cannulation of either the portal or mesenteric venous tree. Such studies are not possible in most patients because of the potential hazards involved and the attendant ethical considerations. Additional information has come from the study of enzyme activity in biopsies of intestinal mucosa and experiments performed on isolated loops of intestine in various animal species. Although the former have identified the fact that enzyme activity may vary along the length of the intestine and the latter have provided quantitative information on what can occur in vivo, these data cannot be extrapolated to intact man. Both phase I (preconjugation) and phase II (conjugation) reactions have been described. However, except for oxidative deamination, e.g. tyramine and hydrolysis of est...Continue Reading

Citations

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