Dynamic Protein Interaction Networks and New Structural Paradigms in Signaling

Chemical Reviews
Veronika CsizmokJulie D Forman-Kay

Abstract

Understanding signaling and other complex biological processes requires elucidating the critical roles of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and regions (IDRs), which represent ∼30% of the proteome and enable unique regulatory mechanisms. In this review, we describe the structural heterogeneity of disordered proteins that underpins these mechanisms and the latest progress in obtaining structural descriptions of conformational ensembles of disordered proteins that are needed for linking structure and dynamics to function. We describe the diverse interactions of IDPs that can have unusual characteristics such as "ultrasensitivity" and "regulated folding and unfolding". We also summarize the mounting data showing that large-scale assembly and protein phase separation occurs within a variety of signaling complexes and cellular structures. In addition, we discuss efforts to therapeutically target disordered proteins with small molecules. Overall, we interpret the remodeling of disordered state ensembles due to binding and post-translational modifications within an expanded framework for allostery that provides significant insights into how disordered proteins transmit biological information.

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