Dynamics of bacterial communities during solid-state fermentation using agro-industrial wastes to produce poly-γ-glutamic acid, revealed by real-time PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)

Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Xiaoyu YongXingming Yang


The dynamics of bacterial communities play an important role in solid-state fermentation (SSF). Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) was produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens C1 in SSF using dairy manure compost and monosodium glutamate production residuals as basic substrates. The production of γ-PGA reached a maximum of 0.6% after 20 days fermentation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction showed the amount of total bacteria reached 3.95 × 10(9) 16S rDNA copies/g sample after 30 days, which was in good accordance with the 4.80 × 10(9) CFU/g obtained by plate counting. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile showed a reduction of microbial diversity during fermentation, while the inoculum, B. amyloliquefaciens C1, was detected as the dominant organism through the whole process. In the mesophilic phase of SSF, Proteobacteria was the dominant microbial, which was replaced by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria in the thermophilic phase. The molecular analysis of the bacterial diversity has significant potential for instructing the maturing process of SSF to produce γ-PGA at a large-scale level, which could be a benefit in the production of high quality and stable SSF products.


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