Adverse reactions to insects occur in both human and veterinary patients. Systematic comparison may lead to improved recommendations for prevention and treatment in all species. In this position paper, we summarize the current knowledge on insect allergy induced via stings, bites, inhalation or ingestion, and compare reactions in companion animals to those in people. With few exceptions, the situation in human insect allergy is better documented than in animals. We focus on a review of recent literature and give overviews of the epidemiology and clinical signs. We discuss allergen sources and allergenic molecules to the extent described, and aspects of diagnosis, prophylaxis, management and therapy.
IgE reactivity against a cross-reactive allergen in crustacea and mollusca: evidence for tropomyosin as the common allergen
Anaphylaxis induced by horsefly bites: identification of a 69 kd IgE-binding salivary gland protein from Chrysops spp. (Diptera, Tabanidae) by western blot analysis
Diagnosis of flea allergy dermatitis: comparison of intradermal testing with flea allergens and a FcepsilonRI alpha-based IgE assay in response to flea control
Immune responses to mosquito saliva in 14 individuals with acute systemic allergic reactions to mosquito bites
Occupational allergy in laboratory workers caused by the African migratory grasshopper Locusta migratoria
Prevalence and clinical relevance of specific immunoglobulin E to pollen caused by sting- induced specific immunoglobulin E to cross-reacting carbohydrate determinants in Hymenoptera venoms
Bites of the European pigeon tick (Argas reflexus): Risk of IgE-mediated sensitizations and anaphylactic reactions
Comparison of clinical history and dermatologic findings in 29 dogs with severe eosinophilic dermatitis: a retrospective analysis
Identification and characterization of an arginine kinase as a major allergen from silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae
Influence of total and specific IgE, serum tryptase, and age on severity of allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings
A randomised, double-blind pilot study of enzyme-potentiated desensitisation for prophylaxis of large local reactions to mosquito bites
Evaluation of a diagnostic ELISA for insect bite hypersensitivity in horses using recombinant Obsoletus complex allergens
Component-resolved microarray analysis of IgE sensitization profiles to Culicoides recombinant allergens in horses with insect bite hypersensitivity.
Who Bites Me? A Tentative Discriminative Key to Diagnose Hematophagous Ectoparasites Biting Using Clinical Manifestations
Investigating the epithelial barrier and immune signatures in the pathogenesis of equine insect bite hypersensitivity
Allergy and Asthma
Allergy and asthma are inflammatory disorders that are triggered by the activation of an allergen-specific regulatory t cell. These t cells become activated when allergens are recognized by allergen-presenting cells. Here is the latest research on allergy and asthma.