Jan 17, 2012

Echinoderms have bilateral tendencies

PloS One
Chengcheng JiJianhao Lv

Abstract

Echinoderms take many forms of symmetry. Pentameral symmetry is the major form and the other forms are derived from it. However, the ancestors of echinoderms, which originated from Cambrian period, were believed to be bilaterians. Echinoderm larvae are bilateral during their early development. During embryonic development of starfish and sea urchins, the position and the developmental sequence of each arm are fixed, implying an auxological anterior/posterior axis. Starfish also possess the Hox gene cluster, which controls symmetrical development. Overall, echinoderms are thought to have a bilateral developmental mechanism and process. In this article, we focused on adult starfish behaviors to corroborate its bilateral tendency. We weighed their central disk and each arm to measure the position of the center of gravity. We then studied their turning-over behavior, crawling behavior and fleeing behavior statistically to obtain the center of frequency of each behavior. By joining the center of gravity and each center of frequency, we obtained three behavioral symmetric planes. These behavioral bilateral tendencies might be related to the A/P axis during the embryonic development of the starfish. It is very likely that the adult st...Continue Reading

  • References17
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References

  • References17
  • Citations1

Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

Entire Nervous System
Pteraster tesselatus
Sea Cucumber substance
Weighing Patient
Embryonic Development
Locomotion
Organ
Starfish
Larva
Limb Structure

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