Fetal cardiac anatomy was studied in 200 pregnancies between 14 weeks' gestation and term using real time two-dimensional echocardiography. Eight scan planes were chosen as contributing valuable and distinct information on the establishment of cardiac normality. To confirm the echocardiographic interpretation, 25 fetal specimens between 12 and 28 weeks' gestational age were sectioned to imitate echocardiographic scan planes and the echocardiographic and anatomical pictures obtained were correlated with each other. The number of patients in whom each plane was recognized was tabulated in the first and second hundred, the second hundred having been studied after the anatomical studies were made. One longitudinal and one transverse plane could be seen in nearly all patients and considerable improvement in the frequency of recognition of other planes was made in the second hundred patients with increasing experience and anatomical understanding. The tricuspid-pulmonary and four-chamber planes alone, however, showed four cardiac chambers, two atrioventricular valves, and two arterial valves within their respective outflow tracts.
Value of antenatal echocardiography in high risk patients to diagnose congenital cardiac defects in fetus
Effect of detailed fetal echocardiography as part of routine prenatal ultrasonographic screening on detection of congenital heart disease
Doppler echocardiographic studies of diastolic function in the human fetal heart: changes during gestation
Screening of congenital heart disease in the second trimester of pregnancy: current knowledge and new perspectives to the clinical practice
Routine prenatal screening for congenital heart disease: what can be expected? A decision-analytic approach
M-mode ultrasound recording of perinatal geometry and dynamics of the cardiac interventricular septum
Morphometric study of the ventricular segment of the human fetal heart between 13 and 20 weeks' gestation
Congenital heart disease and extracardiac anomalies: associations and indications for fetal echocardiography
Birth defects encompass structural and functional alterations that occur during embryonic or fetal development and are present since birth. The cause may be genetic, environmental or unknown and can result in physical and/or mental impairment. Here is the latest research on birth defects.