Echocardiographic contrast in two-dimensional echocardiography: new applications for an old technique?
Although Gramiak and Shah first introduced the technique of using contrast enhanced two-dimensional echocardiography in 1968, it has seen a resurgence of new and varied applications. Three of the areas of interest are in the use of microbubble enhanced contrast agents to evaluate: (1) regional myocardial blood flow; (2) regional myocardial function; and (3) myocardial ischemic areas and infarct size. Whether these new approaches will have applications and value in the clinical laboratory is still a matter of conjecture. The objective of this review is to briefly summarize the potential uses and the advantages and disadvantages of each application.
Left heart opacification with peripheral venous injection of a new saccharide echo contrast agent in dogs
The behavior of sonicated albumin microbubbles within the microcirculation: a basis for their use during myocardial contrast echocardiography
Assessment of regional myocardial blood flow with myocardial contrast two-dimensional echocardiography
The importance of defining left ventricular area at risk in vivo during acute myocardial infarction: an experimental evaluation with myocardial contrast two-dimensional echocardiography
Transluminal, subselective measurement of coronary artery blood flow velocity and vasodilator reserve in man
Intracoronary echo-contrast agents: abnormalities in myocardial function in a normal and reduced coronary perfusion model in dogs
Myocardial contrast echocardiography without significant hemodynamic effects or reactive hyperemia: a major advantage in the imaging of regional myocardial perfusion
Echocardiographic contrast agents: effect of microbubbles and carrier solutions on left ventricular contractility
Myocardial contrast echocardiography in humans: I. Safety--a comparison with routine coronary arteriography
Contrast echocardiography in acute myocardial ischemia. II. The effect of site of injection of contrast agent on the estimation of area at risk for necrosis after coronary occlusion
Contrast echocardiography in acute myocardial ischemia. III. An in vivo comparison of the extent of abnormal wall motion with the area at risk for necrosis
Myocardial perfusion imaging in humans by contrast echocardiography using polygelin colloid solution
Functional and pathologic effects of multiple echocardiographic contrast injections on the myocardium, brain and kidney
Artifactual regional gray level variability in contrast-enhanced two-dimensional echocardiographic images: effect on measurement of the coronary perfusion bed
Identification of ultrasound echoes from the left ventricle by use of intracardiac injections of indocyanine green
Contrast echocardiography in acute myocardial ischemia: I. In vivo determination of total left ventricular "area at risk"
Verification of myocardial contrast two-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of perfusion defects in ischemic myocardium
Hyperemic response of intracoronary contrast agents during two-dimensional echographic delineation of regional myocardium
Minoxidil in patients with chronic left heart failure: contrasting hemodynamic and clinical effects in a controlled trial
Assessment of location and size of myocardial infarction with contrast-enhanced echocardiography. II. Application of digital imaging techniques
Myocardial contrast two-dimensional echocardiography: comparison of contrast disappearance rates in normal and underperfused myocardium
Two-dimensional contrast echocardiography. I. In vitro development and quantitative analysis of echo contrast agents
Correlation of myocardial echo contrast disappearance rate ("washout") and severity of experimental coronary stenosis
Canine myocardial reperfusion injury. Its reduction by the combined administration of superoxide dismutase and catalase
Hydrogen peroxide contrast echocardiography: quantification in vivo of myocardial risk area during coronary occlusion and of the necrotic area remaining after myocardial reperfusion
Myocardial contrast echocardiography: a reproducible technique of myocardial opacification for identifying regional perfusion deficits
Hydrogen peroxide contrast--enhanced two-dimensional echocardiography: real-time in vivo delineation of regional myocardial perfusion
Assessment of myocardial perfusion abnormalities with contrast-enhanced two-dimensional echocardiography
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