Echocardiographic techniques for assessing normal and abnormal fetal cardiac anatomy
Diagnostic quality images of the fetal heart in utero can be obtained as early as 18 to 20 weeks of gestation. The cardiac structures can be imaged primarily by cross-sectional echocardiography and augmented by a combination of simultaneous M-mode echocardiography and range-gated pulsed Doppler ultrasonography. Cross-sectional images from planes through the fetal heart equivalent to planes that can be obtained after birth can be generated in utero. In a study of 168 pregnancies, 10 structural cardiac abnormalities have been defined. These abnormalities and others that have been reported indicate the potential for in utero cardiac diagnosis. The recognition of structural congenital heart disease in utero has been helpful in genetic counseling, planning the method of labor and delivery and making decisions regarding termination of pregnancy and planning postnatal care. Fetal echocardiography offers the potential to change the pattern of health care delivery to those with suspected congenital heart disease.
Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome in utero associated with hydrops fetalis
Quantitative real-time cross-sectional echocardiography in the developing normal humam fetus and newborn
Qualitative real-time cross-sectional echocardiographic imaging of the human fetus during the second half of pregnancy
Intrauterine closure of membranous ventricular septal defects: mechanism of closure in two autopsy specimens
Reversed shunting across the ductus arteriosus or atrial septum in utero heralds severe congenital heart disease
Induced fibrillation is equally effective as crystalloid cardioplegia in the protection of fetal myocardial function
Accuracy of prenatal echocardiographic diagnosis and prognosis of fetuses with conotruncal anomalies
The frequency of aneuploidy in prenatally diagnosed congenital heart disease: an indication for fetal karyotyping
The significance and importance of prenatal diagnosis of fetal cardiac malformations by Doppler echocardiography
Mechanics and energetics of overstretch: the relationship of altered left ventricular volume to the Frank-Starling mechanism and phosphorylation potential
Cardiac dimensions determined by cross-sectional echocardiography in the normal human fetus from 18 weeks to term
Advances in fetal echocardiography: early imaging, three/four dimensional imaging, and role of fetal echocardiography in guiding early postnatal management of congenital heart disease
Fetal atrioventricular valve insufficiency associated with nonimmune hydrops: a two-dimensional echocardiographic and pulsed Doppler ultrasound study
Changes in intracardiac blood flow velocities and right and left ventricular stroke volumes with gestational age in the normal human fetus: a prospective Doppler echocardiographic study
Two-dimensional echocardiographic determination of ventricular volumes in the fetal heart. Validation studies in fetal lambs
ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Clinical Application of Echocardiography. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on Clinical Application of Echocardiography). Developed in collaboration with the American Society of Echocardiography
In situ morphometric analysis of left and right ventricles in fetal rats: changes in ventricular volume, mass, wall thickness, and valvular size
Discover the latest cardiology research in this collection of the top cardiology journals.
Birth defects encompass structural and functional alterations that occur during embryonic or fetal development and are present since birth. The cause may be genetic, environmental or unknown and can result in physical and/or mental impairment. Here is the latest research on birth defects.