Ecology of the rare microbial biosphere of the Arctic Ocean

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Pierre E GalandConnie Lovejoy

Abstract

Understanding the role of microbes in the oceans has focused on taxa that occur in high abundance; yet most of the marine microbial diversity is largely determined by a long tail of low-abundance taxa. This rare biosphere may have a cosmopolitan distribution because of high dispersal and low loss rates, and possibly represents a source of phylotypes that become abundant when environmental conditions change. However, the true ecological role of rare marine microorganisms is still not known. Here, we use pyrosequencing to describe the structure and composition of the rare biosphere and to test whether it represents cosmopolitan taxa or whether, similar to abundant phylotypes, the rare community has a biogeography. Our examination of 740,353 16S rRNA gene sequences from 32 bacterial and archaeal communities from various locations of the Arctic Ocean showed that rare phylotypes did not have a cosmopolitan distribution but, rather, followed patterns similar to those of the most abundant members of the community and of the entire community. The abundance distributions of rare and abundant phylotypes were different, following a log-series and log-normal model, respectively, and the taxonomic composition of the rare biosphere was simil...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

Microorganism
Archaea
Phylogeny
RNA, Archaeal
Microbial
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
Water Microbiology
RNA, Bacterial
Habitat
Seawater

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