Apr 11, 1994

Editing function of Escherichia coli cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase: cyclization of cysteine to cysteine thiolactone

Nucleic Acids Research
H Jakubowski


A cyclic sulfur compound, identified as cysteine thiolactone by several chemical and enzymatic tests, is formed from cysteine during in vitro tRNA(Cys) aminoacylation catalyzed by Escherichia coli cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase. The mechanism of cysteine thiolactone formation involves enzymatic deacylation of Cys-tRNA(Cys) (k = 0.017 s-1) in which nucleophilic sulfur of the side chain of cysteine in Cys-tRNA(Cys) attacks its carboxyl carbon to yield cysteine thiolactone. Nonenzymatic deacylation of Cys-tRNA(Cys) (k = 0.0006 s-1) yields cysteine, as expected. Inhibition of enzymatic deacylation of Cys-tRNA(Cys) by cysteine and Cys-AMP, but not by ATP, indicates that both synthesis of Cys-tRNA(Cys) and cyclization of cysteine to the thiolactone occur in a single active site of the enzyme. The cyclization of cysteine is mechanistically similar to the editing reactions of methionyl-tRNA synthetase. However, in contrast to methionyl-tRNA synthetase which needs the editing function to reject misactivated homocysteine, cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase is highly selective and is not faced with a problem in rejecting noncognate amino acids. Despite this, the present day cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase, like methionyl-tRNA synthetase, still retains an edi...Continue Reading

Mentioned in this Paper

Alkalescens-Dispar Group
Amino Acids, I.V. solution additive
MT-TA gene
Triplet Codon-amino Acid Adaptor Activity
Sulfur Compounds

About this Paper

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

LRRK2 & Immunity During Infection

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.

Meningococcal Myelitis

Meningococcal myelitis is characterized by inflammation and myelin damage to the meninges and spinal cord. Discover the latest research on meningococcal myelitis here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease by recent genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research.