Editing mechanisms in protein synthesis. Rejection of valine by the isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase

Biochemistry
A R Fersht

Abstract

Although the isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase from Escherichia coli (IRS) does not catalyze the overall mischarging of tRNAIle with valine, it does undergo the first step of the reaction, the formation of an IRS-Val-AMP complex. The addition of tRNAIle to this complex leads to its quantitative hydrolysis and the IRS acts as an ATP pyrophosphate in the presence of valine and tRNAIle (Baldwin, A.N., and Berg, P. (1966), J. Biol. Chem. 241, 839). It is shown that during the ATP pyrophosphatase reaction: (a) IRS forms an IRS-Val-AMP complex; (b) the turnover number of the ATP pyrophosphatase reaction is the same at the rate constant for the transfer of isoleucine from IRS-Ile-AMP to tRNAIle over a wide range of temperature and pH; (c) mischarged Val-tRNAIle is hydrolyzed by IRS with a turnover number of 10 s-1 at pH 7.78 and 25 degrees C, compared with a value of 1.2 s-1 for the transfer of isoleucine from IRS-Ile-AMP to tRNA or for the ATP pyrophosphatase reaction. Although this appears to be consistent with an editing mechanism in which there is a slow transfer of the valine from the IRS-Val-AMP to tRNAIle follwed by the rapid hydrolytic step, as recently found for the rejection of threonine by the valyl-tRNA synthetase, there is an inc...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

Pyrophosphatase
Alkalescens-Dispar Group
VARS gene
Valine-tRNA Ligase
Valine
Structure-Activity Relationship
MT-TA gene
Triplet Codon-amino Acid Adaptor Activity
Transfer RNA
Protein Biosynthesis

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