Effect of ingesting a meal and orthostasis on the regulation of splanchnic and systemic hemodynamics and the responsiveness of cardiovascular α1-adrenoceptors.

American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Farid ZreikGiris Jacob

Abstract

Postprandial orthostasis activates mechanisms of cardiovascular homeostasis in order to maintain normal blood pressure (BP) and adequate blood flow to vital organs. The underlying mechanisms of cardiovascular homeostasis in postprandial orthostasis still require elucidation. Fourteen healthy volunteers were recruited to investigate the effect of an orthostatic challenge (600-head-up-tilt for 20 minutes) on splanchnic and systemic hemodynamics before and after ingesting an 800-kilocalorie composite meal. The splanchnic circulation was assessed by ultrasonography of the superior mesenteric and hepatic arteries and portal vein. Systemic hemodynamics were assessed non-invasively by continuous monitoring of BP, heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), and the pressor response to an intravenous infusion on increasing doses of phenylephrine, an α1-adrenoceptor agonist. Neurohumoral regulation was assessed by spectral analysis of HR and BP, plasma catecholamine and aldosterone levels and plasma renin activity. Postprandial mesenteric hyperemia was associated with an increase in CO, a decrease in SVR and cardiac vagal tone, and reduction in baroreflex sensitivity with no change in sympathetic tone. Arterial α1-adrenoceptor responsiveness w...Continue Reading

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