Effect of Smoking Behavior before and during Pregnancy on Selected Birth Outcomes among Singleton Full-Term Pregnancy: A Murmansk County Birth Registry Study

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Olga A KharkovaJon Øyvind Odland


The aim of our study was to assess associations between smoking behavior before and during pregnancy and selected adverse birth outcomes. This study is based on the Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR). Our study includes women who delivered a singleton pregnancy after 37 weeks of gestation (N = 44,486). Smoking information was self-reported and assessed at the first antenatal visit during pregnancy. We adjusted for potential confounders using logistic regression. The highest proportion of infants with low values of birth weight, birth length, head circumference, ponderal index and of the Apgar score at 5 min was observed for women who smoked both before and during pregnancy. We observed a dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked per day during pregnancy and the odds of the aforementioned adverse birth outcomes; neither were there significant differences in their occurrences among non-smokers and those who smoked before but not during pregnancy. Moreover, smoking reduction during pregnancy relative to its pre-gestation level did not influence the odds of the adverse birth outcomes. Our findings emphasize a continued need for action against tobacco smoking during pregnancy.


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