Atmospheric pollution is a worldwide problem. Exposure to atmospheric pollutants causes toxic cellular effects. One of the mechanisms of toxicity by these pollutants is the promotion of oxidative stress. Several signaling pathways control cellular redox homeostasis. In this respect, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a crucial transcription factor in the cell's response to oxidative stress. In cellular animal models, exposure to atmospheric pollutants activates Nrf2, attenuating its toxic and even its carcinogenic effects. Therefore, we have reviewed the scientific literature in order to indicate that air pollutants, such as particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and gaseous matter, are Nrf2 pathway inductors, triggering self-defense through the establishment of proinflammatory and antioxidant responses. Exposure to reactive molecules as atmospheric pollutants causes the activation of Nrf2 and the subsequent regulation of the expression of cytoprotective and detoxifying enzymes, as well as antioxidants. Moreover, induction of Nrf2 prior to exposure reduces the harmful effects of pollutants. The present article discusses the protective role of the Nrf2 pathway against different atmospheric pollu...Continue Reading
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced lipid peroxidation in genetically responsive and non-responsive mice
Stimulation of NADPH-dependent reactive oxygen species formation and DNA damage by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in rat peritoneal lavage cells
Receptor-mediated events and the evaluation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of dioxin risks
Time-dependent changes of inflammatory mediators in the lungs of humans exposed to 0.4 ppm ozone for 2 hr: a comparison of mediators found in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 1 and 18 hr after exposure
An Nrf2/small Maf heterodimer mediates the induction of phase II detoxifying enzyme genes through antioxidant response elements
Nrf2 and Nrf1 in association with Jun proteins regulate antioxidant response element-mediated expression and coordinated induction of genes encoding detoxifying enzymes
Up-regulation of the human gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase regulatory subunit gene involves binding of Nrf-2 to an electrophile responsive element
Regulation of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase subunit gene expression by the transcription factor Nrf2.
Nrf2 and c-Jun regulation of antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated expression and induction of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase heavy subunit gene
Evaluation of DNA damage in exfoliated tear duct epithelial cells from individuals exposed to air pollution assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis assay
Induction of heme oxygenase-1 expression in macrophages by diesel exhaust particle chemicals and quinones via the antioxidant-responsive element
Small maf (MafG and MafK) proteins negatively regulate antioxidant response element-mediated expression and antioxidant induction of the NAD(P)H:Quinone oxidoreductase1 gene
High sensitivity of Nrf2 knockout mice to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity associated with decreased expression of ARE-regulated drug metabolizing enzymes and antioxidant genes
Potency of Michael reaction acceptors as inducers of enzymes that protect against carcinogenesis depends on their reactivity with sulfhydryl groups
Sensitivity to carcinogenesis is increased and chemoprotective efficacy of enzyme inducers is lost in nrf2 transcription factor-deficient mice
Identification of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) as an Nrf2-interacting protein. Implication for heme oxygenase-1 gene regulation
Confounding and effect modification in the short-term effects of ambient particles on total mortality: results from 29 European cities within the APHEA2 project
Two domains of Nrf2 cooperatively bind CBP, a CREB binding protein, and synergistically activate transcription
Molecular basis for the contribution of the antioxidant responsive element to cancer chemoprevention
Thiol antioxidants inhibit the adjuvant effects of aerosolized diesel exhaust particles in a murine model for ovalbumin sensitization
Loss of the Nrf2 transcription factor causes a marked reduction in constitutive and inducible expression of the glutathione S-transferase Gsta1, Gsta2, Gstm1, Gstm2, Gstm3 and Gstm4 genes in the livers of male and female mice
cDNA microarray analysis of gene expression in rat alveolar macrophages in response to organic extract of diesel exhaust particles
Sulforaphane inhibits extracellular, intracellular, and antibiotic-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori and prevents benzo[a]pyrene-induced stomach tumors.
Integration and diversity of the regulatory network composed of Maf and CNC families of transcription factors
Electrophile response element-mediated induction of the cystine/glutamate exchange transporter gene expression.
Comparison of the pro-oxidative and proinflammatory effects of organic diesel exhaust particle chemicals in bronchial epithelial cells and macrophages
Peroxynitrite activates NF-E2-related factor 2/antioxidant response element through the pathway of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase: the role of nitric oxide synthase in rat glutathione S-transferase A2 induction
The transcriptional activation of the human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase gene by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin through two different regulator sites, the antioxidant responsive element and xenobiotic responsive element
Interactive effects of nrf2 genotype and oltipraz on benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adducts and tumor yield in mice
Involvement of reactive oxygen species in the metabolic pathways triggered by diesel exhaust particles in human airway epithelial cells
Identification of a novel Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response element (ARE) in the mouse NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene: reassessment of the ARE consensus sequence.
Induction of murine NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin requires the CNC (cap 'n' collar) basic leucine zipper transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2): cross-interaction between AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) and Nrf2 signal transduction
Transcription factor Nrf2 is required for the constitutive and inducible expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 in mouse embryo fibroblasts
DEP-induced fra-1 expression correlates with a distinct activation of AP-1-dependent gene transcription in the lung
Expression of the aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide-metabolizing murine glutathione S-transferase A3 subunit is regulated by the Nrf2 transcription factor through an antioxidant response element.
Nitric oxide-induced transcriptional up-regulation of protective genes by Nrf2 via the antioxidant response element counteracts apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells.
Regulation of Nrf2 transactivation domain activity. The differential effects of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades and synergistic stimulatory effect of Raf and CREB-binding protein
Small Maf proteins serve as transcriptional cofactors for keratinocyte differentiation in the Keap1-Nrf2 regulatory pathway
Redox-regulated turnover of Nrf2 is determined by at least two separate protein domains, the redox-sensitive Neh2 degron and the redox-insensitive Neh6 degron.
Roles of heme oxygenase-1 in the antiproliferative and antiapoptotic effects of nitric oxide on Jurkat T cells
Acute effects of ozone on mortality from the "air pollution and health: a European approach" project
Oxidative stress sensor Keap1 functions as an adaptor for Cul3-based E3 ligase to regulate proteasomal degradation of Nrf2
Nrf2 is a key transcription factor that regulates antioxidant defense in macrophages and epithelial cells: protecting against the proinflammatory and oxidizing effects of diesel exhaust chemicals
Diesel exhaust particles and their effect on induced cytokine expression in human bronchial epithelial cells
Transcriptional regulation of thioredoxin reductase 1 expression by cadmium in vascular endothelial cells: role of NF-E2-related factor-2
Do the serum oxidative stress biomarkers provide a reasonable index of the general oxidative stress status?
Comparison of the repair of DNA damage induced by the benzene metabolites hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone: a role for hydroquinone in benzene genotoxicity
Background exposure to PCDDs/PCDFs/PCBs and its potential health effects: a review of epidemiologic studies
Characterization of Nrf2 activation and heme oxygenase-1 expression in NIH3T3 cells exposed to aqueous extracts of cigarette smoke
Molecular mechanisms involved in enhancing HO-1 expression: de-repression by heme and activation by Nrf2, the "one-two" punch
trans-Stilbene oxide induces expression of genes involved in metabolism and transport in mouse liver via CAR and Nrf2 transcription factors
Role of the Nrf2-mediated signaling pathway as a negative regulator of inflammation: implications for the impact of particulate pollutants on asthma
Keap1 recruits Neh2 through binding to ETGE and DLG motifs: characterization of the two-site molecular recognition model
Induction of 26S proteasome subunit PSMB5 by the bifunctional inducer 3-methylcholanthrene through the Nrf2-ARE, but not the AhR/Arnt-XRE, pathway
Butylated hydroxyanisole regulates ARE-mediated gene expression via Nrf2 coupled with ERK and JNK signaling pathway in HepG2 cells
Arsenic induces NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase I by disrupting the Nrf2 x Keap1 x Cul3 complex and recruiting Nrf2 x Maf to the antioxidant response element enhancer
Inhibition of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced skin tumorigenesis in C57BL/6 mice by sulforaphane is mediated by nuclear factor E2-related factor 2.
Phase II enzymes induction blocks the enhanced IgE production in B cells by diesel exhaust particles
Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes involved in activation and detoxification of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Peroxynitrite induces HO-1 expression via PI3K/Akt-dependent activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 in PC12 cells
Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD[P]H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) by a phenolic antioxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and its metabolite, tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) in primary-cultured human and rat hepatocytes
Particulate matter properties and health effects: consistency of epidemiological and toxicological studies
Nitric oxide stimulates heme oxygenase-1 gene transcription via the Nrf2/ARE complex to promote vascular smooth muscle cell survival
Protection against chromium (VI)-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis by Nrf2. Recruiting Nrf2 into the nucleus and disrupting the nuclear Nrf2/Keap1 association
The Nrf2 transcription factor contributes to the induction of alpha-class GST isoenzymes in liver of acute cadmium or manganese intoxicated rats: comparison with the toxic effect on NAD(P)H:quinone reductase
Enhanced spontaneous and benzo(a)pyrene-induced mutations in the lung of Nrf2-deficient gpt delta mice
Elevated peroxiredoxin 1, but not NF-E2-related factor 2, is an independent prognostic factor for disease recurrence and reduced survival in stage I non-small cell lung cancer
Hepatic and immune biological effect assays in C57BL/6 mice to measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioavailability under laboratory exposures with increasing environmental relevance
Carbon monoxide produced by heme oxygenase-1 in response to nitrosative stress induces expression of glutamate-cysteine ligase in PC12 cells via activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Nrf2 signaling.
Genetic dissection of the Nrf2-dependent redox signaling-regulated transcriptional programs of cell proliferation and cytoprotection
Anthocyanins induce the activation of phase II enzymes through the antioxidant response element pathway against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis
Anticarcinogenesis by dietary phytochemicals: cytoprotection by Nrf2 in normal cells and cytotoxicity by modulation of transcription factors NF-kappa B and AP-1 in abnormal cancer cells
Air pollution combustion emissions: characterization of causative agents and mechanisms associated with cancer, reproductive, and cardiovascular effects
Instillation of coarse ash particulate matter and lipopolysaccharide produces a systemic inflammatory response in mice
Negative feedback regulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression by heme oxygenase-1 induction in macrophages
Induction of cancer chemopreventive enzymes by coffee is mediated by transcription factor Nrf2. Evidence that the coffee-specific diterpenes cafestol and kahweol confer protection against acrolein
Ambient particulate pollutants in the ultrafine range promote early atherosclerosis and systemic oxidative stress
Redox cycling of 9,10-phenanthraquinone to cause oxidative stress is terminated through its monoglucuronide conjugation in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells
Dietary curcumin modulates transcriptional regulators of phase I and phase II enzymes in benzo[a]pyrene-treated mice: mechanism of its anti-initiating action
Characterisation of urban inhalation exposures to benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in the European Union: comparison of measured and modelled exposure data
Cytotoxic effects induced in vitro by organic extracts from urban air particulate matter in human leukocytes
ROS-generating/ARE-activating capacity of metals in roadway particulate matter deposited in urban environment
Organic extracts from African dust storms stimulate oxidative stress and induce inflammatory responses in human lung cells through Nrf2 but not NF-κB
Vitamin C Compound Mixtures Prevent Ozone-Induced Oxidative Damage in Human Keratinocytes as Initial Assessment of Pollution Protection
Phytotherapeutic approach: a new hope for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induced cellular disorders, autophagic and apoptotic cell death
Evaluation of oxidative damage and Nrf2 activation by combined pollution exposure in lung epithelial cells
PM2.5 induces Nrf2-mediated defense mechanisms against oxidative stress by activating PIK3/AKT signaling pathway in human lung alveolar epithelial A549 cells
Particulate Matter (PM2.5 ) from Biomass Combustion Induces an Anti-Oxidative Response and Cancer Drug Resistance in Human Bronchial Epithelial BEAS-2B Cells
Mechanistic insight into toxicity of phthalates, the involved receptors, and the role of Nrf2, NF-κB, and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways.
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