Jun 1, 1976

Effects of citrus pulp in high urea rations for steers

Journal of Dairy Science
F J Pinzon, J M Wing


Effects of pelleted and conventional citrus pulp as a replacement for corn, with soybean meal added to keep protein comparable, were tested in rations with 5% urea and 33.33% sugarcane bagasse for fistulated steers. Thus, all rations were low in readily fermented carbohydrates other than those of corn or citrus pulp. Evaluation criteria were concentrations of urea in blood and of pH, ammonia, and volatile fatty acids of rumen fluid. Citrus pulp for diets 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 0, 19, 38, or 55%. Rumen fluid and blood were sampled 1 h before and 2, 4, 7, and 12 h after feed was placed directly into the rumen. No differences between pelleted and conventional pulp or among time trends were significant except that for both forms rumen ammonia was lower with the two highest percents of citrus pulp. Addition of citrus pulp at 0, 19, 38, or 55% of the ration reduced rumen pH (6.85, 6.65, 6.61, 6.51). Blood urea and rumen ammonia decreased in steers fed 19, 38, or 55% pulp; thus, the acetic to propionic ratio was higher. Butyric acid changed only in the time trend. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were higher at 19, 38, and 55% than at 0% pulp. They were higher at 38 and 55 than at 19%.

  • References3
  • Citations5


Mentioned in this Paper

Carbohydrate nutrients
Gastric Juice
Fatty Acids, Volatile
Butyric Acid
Glycine max
Soybean preparation
Dental Pulp

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

LRRK2 & Immunity During Infection

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.

Meningococcal Myelitis

Meningococcal myelitis is characterized by inflammation and myelin damage to the meninges and spinal cord. Discover the latest research on meningococcal myelitis here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease by recent genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research.