Effects of endotoxin on gastric injury from luminal irritants in rats: potential roles of nitric oxide

The American Journal of Physiology
David W MercerD H Russell


The expression and function of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the stomach is unclear. This study assessed the effects of endotoxin on rat gastric iNOS expression and its role in gastric injury from luminal irritants. In conscious rats, a 5-h treatment with intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1-20 mg/kg) dose dependently increased gastric mucosal iNOS immunoreactivity and increased gastric luminal nitrate and nitrite accumulation (Griess reaction). LPS also increased gastric luminal fluid accumulation and reduced macroscopic gastric injury from orogastric acidified ethanol. Aminoguanidine (45 mg/kg) did not prevent LPS-induced gastroprotection or gastric fluid accumulation. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester increased gastric luminal fluid and caused macroscopic gastric injury when given with LPS. Using an anesthetized preparation followed by removal of luminal fluid, LPS reduced gastric mucosal blood flow and exacerbated gastric injury from either acidified ethanol or acidified taurocholate, an effect that was negated by aminoguanidine. These data indicate that in conscious rats, the gastroprotective effect of endotoxin is dependent on constitutive NOS but not iNOS activity. However, the inducible isoform particip...Continue Reading


Nov 1, 1994·Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology·B L Tepperman, B D Soper
Oct 1, 1995·Digestive Diseases and Sciences·David W MercerD T Dempsey
Jan 1, 1993·British Journal of Pharmacology·J Lopez-BelmonteS Moncada
Jun 1, 1996·The Journal of Surgical Research·David W MercerJ Cacioppo
Dec 10, 1996·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·J V EspluguesS Moncada
Jul 1, 1997·Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery : Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract·K KlemmF G Moody


Nov 14, 2007·European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes·J SuliburkDavid W Mercer
Nov 22, 2002·American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology·Sonlee D WestDavid W Mercer

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathies are a group of inherited neurodegenerative disorders characterized clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. Here is the latest research on these neuropathies.

Spatio-Temporal Regulation of DNA Repair

DNA repair is a complex process regulated by several different classes of enzymes, including ligases, endonucleases, and polymerases. This feed focuses on the spatial and temporal regulation that accompanies DNA damage signaling and repair enzymes and processes.

Glut1 Deficiency

Glut1 deficiency, an autosomal dominant, genetic metabolic disorder associated with a deficiency of GLUT1, the protein that transports glucose across the blood brain barrier, is characterized by mental and motor developmental delays and infantile seizures. Follow the latest research on Glut1 deficiency with this feed.

Separation Anxiety

Separation anxiety is a type of anxiety disorder that involves excessive distress and anxiety with separation. This may include separation from places or people to which they have a strong emotional connection with. It often affects children more than adults. Here is the latest research on separation anxiety.

KIF1A Associated Neurological Disorder

KIF1A associated neurological disorder (KAND) is a rare neurodegenerative condition caused by mutations in the KIF1A gene. KAND may present with a wide range and severity of symptoms including stiff or weak leg muscles, low muscle tone, a lack of muscle coordination and balance, and intellectual disability. Find the latest research on KAND here.

Regulation of Vocal-Motor Plasticity

Dopaminergic projections to the basal ganglia and nucleus accumbens shape the learning and plasticity of motivated behaviors across species including the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity and performance in songbirds. Discover the latest research on the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity here.