Jan 3, 2014

Effects of ionizing radiation on biological molecules--mechanisms of damage and emerging methods of detection

Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Julie A ReiszCristina M Furdui


The detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR) involve a highly orchestrated series of events that are amplified by endogenous signaling and culminating in oxidative damage to DNA, lipids, proteins, and many metabolites. Despite the global impact of IR, the molecular mechanisms underlying tissue damage reveal that many biomolecules are chemoselectively modified by IR. The development of high-throughput "omics" technologies for mapping DNA and protein modifications have revolutionized the study of IR effects on biological systems. Studies in cells, tissues, and biological fluids are used to identify molecular features or biomarkers of IR exposure and response and the molecular mechanisms that regulate their expression or synthesis. In this review, chemical mechanisms are described for IR-induced modifications of biomolecules along with methods for their detection. Included with the detection methods are crucial experimental considerations and caveats for their use. Additional factors critical to the cellular response to radiation, including alterations in protein expression, metabolomics, and epigenetic factors, are also discussed. Throughout the review, the synergy of combined "omics" technologies such as genomics and epige...Continue Reading

Mentioned in this Paper

Study of Epigenetics
Body Fluids
Body Fluids and Substances
Nucleic Acids
Genotoxic Stress
Lipids Measurement

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