Electrical Stimulation of Visual Cortex: Relevance for the Development of Visual Cortical Prosthetics

Annual Review of Vision Science
William H BoskingDaniel Yoshor


Electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex is a powerful tool for exploring cortical function. Stimulation of early visual cortical areas is easily detected by subjects and produces simple visual percepts known as phosphenes. A device implanted in visual cortex that generates patterns of phosphenes could be used as a substitute for natural vision in blind patients. We review the possibilities and limitations of such a device, termed a visual cortical prosthetic. Currently, we can predict the location and size of phosphenes produced by stimulation of single electrodes. A functional prosthetic, however, must produce spatial temporal patterns of activity that will result in the perception of complex visual objects. Although stimulation of later visual cortical areas alone usually does not lead to a visual percept, it can alter visual perception and the performance of visual behaviors, and training subjects to use signals injected into these areas may be possible.


Dec 15, 1991·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·A GrinvaldE Bartfeld
Jan 1, 1991·Experimental Brain Research·F RicherJ M Saint-Hilaire
Jan 1, 1990·Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology·W T NewsomeJ A Movshon
May 1, 1990·Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing·M BakE M Schmidt
May 1, 1968·The Journal of Physiology·G S Brindley, W S Lewin
Mar 1, 1968·The Journal of Physiology·D H Hubel, T N Wiesel
Jan 1, 1984·Journal of Neurophysiology·T D AlbrightC G Gross
Apr 8, 1994·Science·C D Salzman, W T Newsome
Feb 1, 1994·Journal of Neurophysiology·T AllisonD D Spencer
Jan 1, 1996·Annual Review of Neuroscience·K Tanaka
Aug 26, 1998·Nature·G C DeAngelisW T Newsome
Apr 9, 1999·Nature Neuroscience·K H Britten, R J van Wezel
Feb 10, 2000·ASAIO Journal : a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs·W H Dobelle
Jul 9, 2002·The European Journal of Neuroscience·O BlankeM Seeck
May 27, 2003·Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology : Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society·Trevor MundelVernon L Towle
Oct 1, 1959·The Journal of Physiology·D H HUBEL, T N WIESEL
Nov 18, 2003·Artificial Organs·Philip TroykVernon Towle
Dec 4, 2003·Journal of Vision·Robert F DoughertyBrian A Wandell
Jan 1, 1950·Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, vereinigt mit Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie·W PENFIELD
Mar 17, 2004·PLoS Biology·Gregory C DeAngelis, William T Newsome
Apr 15, 2004·Current Opinion in Neurobiology·Marlene R Cohen, William T Newsome
Jul 13, 2004·The European Journal of Neuroscience·Edward J TehovnikPeter H Schiller
Sep 3, 2004·Journal of Neurophysiology·D C BradleyH Xu
Sep 17, 2004·Journal of Neurophysiology·E J TehovnikP H Schiller
Jul 19, 2005·Annual Review of Neuroscience·Lawrence C Sincich, Jonathan C Horton
Nov 26, 2005·The European Journal of Neuroscience·Edward J TehovnikPeter H Schiller
Jun 24, 2006·The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience·Takanori Uka, Gregory C DeAngelis

❮ Previous
Next ❯


Jun 3, 2020·Cerebral Cortex·Jia Ming HuAnna Wang Roe
Jul 11, 2020·The Neuroscientist : a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry·Kevin A Mazurek, Marc H Schieber
Jun 17, 2020·Journal of Neural Engineering·Vernon L TowlePhilip R Troyk
Sep 9, 2018·Neurotherapeutics : the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics·Soroush Niketeghad, Nader Pouratian
Dec 5, 2020·Science·Michael S Beauchamp, Daniel Yoshor
Mar 7, 2021·Brain Sciences·Danko D GeorgievGeorgi V Georgiev
Feb 27, 2021·Frontiers in Human Neuroscience·Maurice PtitoDaniel-Robert Chebat
May 16, 2020·Cell·Pieter R Roelfsema
Aug 13, 2021·Neuroscience Bulletin·Chundi WangShenbing Kuang
Sep 3, 2021·Bioelectricity·Jarno M A TanskanenJari A K Hyttinen

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Methods Mentioned


Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.


Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.

Related Papers

Annual Review of Vision Science
Lindsey L Glickfeld, Shawn R Olsen
Annual Review of Vision Science
Mohammadali Almasieh, Leonard A Levin
Annual Review of Vision Science
Kalanit Grill-SpectorJesse Gomez
Annual Review of Vision Science
Barbara Dosher, Zhong-Lin Lu
Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics
Kurt HirschhornJoel N Hirschhorn
© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved