PMID: 1510Dec 1, 1975

Elementary osmotic pump

Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
F Theeuwes

Abstract

The elementary osmotic pump is a new delivery system for drugs or other active agents; it delivers the agent by an osmotic process at a controlled rate. Control resides in the: (a) water permeation characteristics of a semipermeable membrane surrounding the formulated agent, and (b) osmotic properties of the formulation. In its simplest embodiment, the system is constructed by coating an osmotically activie solid agent with the rate-controlling, semipermeable membrane. This membrane contains an orifice of critical size through which solubilized agent is dispensed. The system can contain the agent in solid form at loading higher than 90% of the total volume, and the agent can be delivered at rates several orders of magnitude higher than can be achieved by solution diffusion through polymeric membranes. The delivery rate, the fraction of total content delivered at zero order, and the system's delivery portal size have been calculated for delivery of a single compound. Experimental work verified the theory. The release rate from the system was found to be independent of outside agitation when the system is not deformed by shaking action, the pH of the environment, and delivery portal size for sizes within a specified range. The de...Continue Reading

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