Feb 7, 2009

Elevated levels of activin A in clinical and experimental pulmonary hypertension

Journal of Applied Physiology
Arne YndestadArne K Andreassen


Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily, is involved in regulation of tissue remodeling and inflammation. Herein, we wanted to explore a role for activin A in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Circulating levels of activin A and its binding protein follistatin were measured in patients with PH (n = 47) and control subjects (n = 14). To investigate synthesis and localization of pulmonary activin A, we utilized an experimental model of hypoxia-induced PH. In mouse lungs, we also explored signaling pathways that can be activated by activin A, such as phosphorylation of Smads, which are mediators of TGF-beta signaling. Possible pathophysiological mechanisms initiated by activin A were explored by exposing pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells in culture to this cytokine. Elevated levels of activin A and follistatin were found in patients with PH, and activin A levels were significantly related to mortality. Immunohistochemistry of lung autopsies from PH patients and lungs with experimental PH localized activin A primarily to alveolar macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells. Mice with PH exhibited increased pulmonary levels of mRNA for activin A and follistatin in the lungs, and also elevated pulm...Continue Reading

  • References27
  • Citations18


  • References27
  • Citations18

Mentioned in this Paper

Establishment and Maintenance of Localization
Recombinant Transforming Growth Factor
Biochemical Pathway
Bronchial System
Transforming Growth Factor beta
Vascular Endothelial Cells
Squamous Transitional Epithelial Cell Count

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

LRRK2 & Immunity During Infection

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.

Meningococcal Myelitis

Meningococcal myelitis is characterized by inflammation and myelin damage to the meninges and spinal cord. Discover the latest research on meningococcal myelitis here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease by recent genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research.

© 2020 Meta ULC. All rights reserved