PMID: 16094806Aug 13, 2005

Emergent properties from organisms to ecosystems: towards a realistic approach

Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Jean-François Ponge

Abstract

More realistic approaches are needed to understand the complexity of ecological systems. Emergent properties of real systems can be used as a basis for a new, neither reductionist nor holistic, approach. Three systems, termed here BUBBLEs, WAVEs and CRYSTALs, have been identified as exhibiting emergent properties. They are non-hierarchical assemblages of individual components, with amplification and connectedness being two main principles that govern their build-up, maintenance and mutual relationships. Examples from various fields of biological and ecological science are referred to, ranging from individual organisms to landscapes.

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Dec 20, 2011·Nature Immunology·Arturo Casadevall, Liise-Anne Pirofski
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Jul 19, 2017·Psychosomatic Medicine·Karl J Maier, Mustafa alʼAbsi
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