Emerging Human Coronavirus Infections (SARS, MERS, and COVID-19): Where They Are Leading Us.

International Reviews of Immunology
Vijay Kumar


Coronavirus infections are responsible for mild, moderate, and severe infections in birds and mammals. These were first isolated in humans as causal microorganisms responsible for common cold. The 2002-2003 SARS epidemic caused by SARS-CoV and 2012 MERS epidemic (64 countries affected) caused by MERS-CoV showed their acute and fatal side. These two CoV infections killed thousands of patients infected worldwide. However, WHO has still reported the MERS case in December 2019 in middle-eastern country (Saudi Arabia), indicating the MERS epidemic has not ended completely yet. Although we have not yet understood completely these two CoV epidemics, a third most dangerous and severe CoV infection has been originated in the Wuhan city, Hubei district of China in December 2019. This CoV infection called COVID-19 or SARS-CoV2 infection has now spread to 210 countries and territories around the world. COVID-19 has now been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). It has infected more than 16.69 million people with more than 663,540 deaths across the world. Thus the current manuscript aims to describe all three (SARS, MERS, and COVID-19) in terms of their causal organisms (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV2), similarities...Continue Reading


Jul 15, 1992·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·R J NoelleA Aruffo
Nov 1, 1992·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·K R KlimpelS H Leppla
Jan 1, 1966·Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine·D Hamre, J J Procknow
Apr 1, 1967·The Journal of General Virology·J D Almeida, D A Tyrrell
Mar 9, 1968·British Medical Journal·D A TyrrellB Hoorn
Apr 1, 1967·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·K McIntoshR M Chanock
Jul 1, 1983·Archives of Disease in Childhood·D IsaacsM R MacNaughton
Oct 1, 1994·The European Respiratory Journal·F RatjenU Costabel
Feb 24, 1995·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·B Dong, R H Silverman
Jan 1, 1993·Annual Review of Immunology·D C Parker
Mar 1, 1996·The Journal of Experimental Medicine·F MalisanH Martinez-Valdez
May 1, 1996·International Immunology·N ShparagoC M Snapper
Jul 1, 1996·Clinical and Experimental Allergy : Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology·L G HeaneyM Ennis
Apr 15, 1997·The Journal of Clinical Investigation·F BlanchetteC M Dubois
Apr 29, 1998·Immunological Reviews·C Morimoto, S F Schlossman
Dec 22, 1999·The European Respiratory Journal·J GriggS Uren
Mar 13, 2001·Annual Review of Immunology·K W MooreA O'Garra
Apr 23, 2002·Journal of Virology·Hongying ChenJulian A Hiscox
Oct 3, 2002·Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology·Gary Thomas
Apr 12, 2003·The New England Journal of Medicine·Thomas G KsiazekUNKNOWN SARS Working Group
Apr 15, 2003·Nature Immunology·Katherine A FitzgeraldTom Maniatis
May 8, 2003·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·Christopher M BoothAllan S Detsky
May 16, 2003·The New England Journal of Medicine·Brigg ReilleyNicoletta Dentico
Aug 15, 2003·World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG·Qing-He NieQin Su
Oct 3, 2003·Pediatrics·Chi C ShekTai F Fok
Nov 5, 2003·Annals of Internal Medicine·Kin Wing ChoiUNKNOWN Princess Margaret Hospital SARS Study Group
Dec 4, 2003·Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications·Xiaodong XiaoDimiter S Dimitrov
Dec 13, 2003·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Swee Kee WongMichael Farzan
Jan 7, 2004·Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications·Tin-Yun HoChien-Yun Hsiang
Mar 20, 2004·Clinical and Experimental Immunology·C K WongJ J Y Sung
Mar 23, 2004·Nature Medicine·Lia van der HoekBen Berkhout
Mar 24, 2004·Nature Reviews. Microbiology·Konrad StadlerRino Rappuoli
May 29, 2004·Trends in Pharmacological Sciences·Anthony J TurnerNigel M Hooper
Jun 3, 2004·Pediatrics·Chi-wai LeungMan-chun Chiu
Jun 10, 2004·The Journal of Immunology : Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists·Chen-Hsiang LeeKuender D Yang
Jun 23, 2004·Emerging Infectious Diseases·Rui-Heng XuAlan Schnur
Jul 3, 2004·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Kazuishi KubotaYasuteru Iijima
Jul 24, 2004·Infection and Immunity·Yuanchun ZhangJinning Lou

❮ Previous
Next ❯


Nov 7, 2020·International Reviews of Immunology·Vijay Kumar

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.


Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.

Related Papers

Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Nicola PetrosilloEskild Petersen
© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved