Dec 22, 2010

Emerging roles for the transforming growth factor-{beta} superfamily in regulating adiposity and energy expenditure

Endocrine Reviews
Nader Zamani, Chester W Brown

Abstract

Members of the TGF-β superfamily regulate many aspects of development, including adipogenesis. Studies in cells and animal models have characterized the effects of superfamily signaling on adipocyte development, adiposity, and energy expenditure. Although bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 is generally considered a protein that promotes the differentiation of white adipocytes, BMP7 has emerged as a selective regulator of brown adipogenesis. Conversely, TGF-β and activin A inhibit adipocyte development, a process augmented in TGF-β-treated cells by Smads 6 and 7, negative regulators of canonical TGF-β signaling. Other superfamily members have mixed effects on adipogenesis depending on cell culture conditions, the timing of expression, and the cell type, and many of these effects occur by altering the expression or activities of proteins that control the adipogenic cascade, including members of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein family and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. BMP7, growth differentiation factor (GDF) 8, and GDF3 are versatile in their mechanisms of action, and altering their normal expression characteristics has significant effects on adiposity in vivo. In addition to their roles in adipogenesis, activin...Continue Reading

  • References151
  • Citations59
  • References151
  • Citations59

Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

Recombinant Transforming Growth Factor
Transforming Growth Factor beta
MSTN gene
Enhancer Binding Protein
Adipocytes, White
Protein-Energy Malnutrition
Energy Metabolism
Activins
Cell Culture Techniques
PPARA gene

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

LRRK2 & Immunity During Infection

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.

Meningococcal Myelitis

Meningococcal myelitis is characterized by inflammation and myelin damage to the meninges and spinal cord. Discover the latest research on meningococcal myelitis here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease by recent genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research.