Emerging Roles of Functional Bacterial Amyloids in Gene Regulation, Toxicity, and Immunomodulation.

Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews : MMBR
Nir SalinasIlana Kolodkin-Gal

Abstract

Bacteria often reside in multicellular communities, called biofilms, held together by an extracellular matrix. In many bacteria, the major proteinaceous component of the biofilm are amyloid fibers. Amyloids are highly stable and structured protein aggregates which were known mostly to be associated with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. In recent years, microbial amyloids were identified also in other species and shown to play major roles in microbial physiology and virulence. For example, amyloid fibers assemble on the bacterial cell surface as a part of the extracellular matrix and are extremely important to the scaffolding and structural integrity of biofilms, which contribute to microbial resilience and resistance. Furthermore, microbial amyloids play fundamental nonscaffold roles that contribute to the development of biofilms underlying numerous persistent infections. Here, we review several nonscaffold roles of bacterial amyloid proteins, including bridging cells during collective migration, acting as regulators of cell fate, as toxins against other bacteria or against host immune cells, and as modulators of the hosts' immune system. These overall points on the comple...Continue Reading

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Citations

Feb 16, 2021·Frontiers in Microbiology·Ruchika Vinod JoshiRiti Mann
Dec 23, 2020·Microorganisms·Ana Álvarez-MenaDiego Romero
Mar 23, 2021·Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology·Nicole BalascoAntonella Accardo
Apr 4, 2021·Microorganisms·Mnar GhrayebLiraz Chai

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