Empathizing and systemizing in adults with and without autism spectrum conditions: cross-cultural stability

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Akio WakabayashiSally J Wheelwright


This study tests the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory of sex differences and the extreme male brain (EMB) theory of autism. Three groups of participants took part: n = 48 people with autism spectrum, n = 137 general population controls, and n = 1,250 university student controls. Each participant completed the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and the Systemizing Quotient (SQ). The autism spectrum condition (ASC) group scored significantly lower than controls on the EQ, and significantly higher on the SQ. Among both control groups, females scored significantly higher than males on the EQ, whilst males scored significantly higher than females on the SQ. The distribution of 'brain types', based on the difference between EQ and SQ scores, showed distinct profiles for people with ASC, control males and control females.


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Entire Brain
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Autism spectrum disorder is associated with challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, and often accompanied by sensory sensitivities and medical issues. Here is the latest research.