This study tests the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory of sex differences and the extreme male brain (EMB) theory of autism. Three groups of participants took part: n = 48 people with autism spectrum, n = 137 general population controls, and n = 1,250 university student controls. Each participant completed the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and the Systemizing Quotient (SQ). The autism spectrum condition (ASC) group scored significantly lower than controls on the EQ, and significantly higher on the SQ. Among both control groups, females scored significantly higher than males on the EQ, whilst males scored significantly higher than females on the SQ. The distribution of 'brain types', based on the difference between EQ and SQ scores, showed distinct profiles for people with ASC, control males and control females.
Local information processing in adults with high functioning autism and asperger syndrome: the usefulness of neuropsychological tests and self-reports
Superior analgesic effect of an active distraction versus pleasant unfamiliar sounds and music: the influence of emotion and cognitive style
The correlation between brain gray matter volume and empathizing and systemizing quotients in healthy children
Aggregation of social deficits and psychiatric disorders in parents of children with autism: toward a temperamental link?
Diametrical diseases reflect evolutionary-genetic tradeoffs: Evidence from psychiatry, neurology, rheumatology, oncology and immunology
The Empathy and Systemizing Quotient: The Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Version and a Review of the Cross-Cultural Stability
Individual differences in brain structure underpin empathizing-systemizing cognitive styles in male adults
Sexually dimorphic facial features vary according to level of autistic-like traits in the general population
Autism spectrum disorder as early neurodevelopmental disorder: evidence from the brain imaging abnormalities in 2-3 years old toddlers
Adult Empathy: Possible Gender Differences in Gene-Environment Architecture for Cognitive and Emotional Components in a Large Italian Twin Sample
Reduced emotional empathy in adults with subclinical ADHD: evidence from the empathy and systemizing quotient
Enhancing emotion recognition in children with autism spectrum conditions: an intervention using animated vehicles with real emotional faces
Are the autism and positive schizotypy spectra diametrically opposed in empathizing and systemizing?
Succeeding in deactivating: associations of hair zinc levels with functional and structural neural mechanisms
Empathy, Autistic Tendencies, and Systemizing Tendencies-Relationships Between Standard Self-Report Measures
Brief Report: Empathic Responsiveness of High Functioning Children with Autism to Expressed and Anticipated Distress
The Emanuel Miller Memorial Lecture 1991. Autism and autistic-like conditions: subclasses among disorders of empathy
An advanced test of theory of mind: understanding of story characters' thoughts and feelings by able autistic, mentally handicapped, and normal children and adults
An enzyme/brain-barrier theory of psychiatric pathogenesis: unifying observations on phenylketonuria, autism, schizophrenia and postpartum psychosis
Another advanced test of theory of mind: evidence from very high functioning adults with autism or asperger syndrome
Recognition of faux pas by normally developing children and children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism
The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test revised version: a study with normal adults, and adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism
The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): evidence from Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism, males and females, scientists and mathematicians
The Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders: background, inter-rater reliability and clinical use
The Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders: algorithms for ICD-10 childhood autism and Wing and Gould autistic spectrum disorder
The systemizing quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism, and normal sex differences
The empathy quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high functioning autism, and normal sex differences
Predicting Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) from the Systemizing Quotient-Revised (SQ-R) and Empathy Quotient (EQ)
Individual and gender differences in Empathizing and Systemizing: measurement of individual differences by the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and the Systemizing Quotient (SQ)
Autism spectrum disorder is associated with challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, and often accompanied by sensory sensitivities and medical issues. Here is the latest research.