PMID: 237085Jun 1, 1975Paper

Emulsion stabilization by non-ionic surfactants: the relevance of surfactant cloud point

The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
A T FlorenceF Puisieux


The effect of various additives, electrolytes and non-electrolytes, on the cloud point of non-ionic surfactants has been studied. Additives which salt-out the polyoxyethylene chains of the surfactants cause decreased stability of oil-in-water emulsions by decreasing the true hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) of the surfactant; additives such as sodium iodide and propanol salt-in the non-ionic surfactants and result in an increase in the effective or true HLB of the system. The latter additives do not increase the hydration of the polyoxyethylene chains but their effect must be on the structure of water so that the heat of hydration of the chains is altered. Experiments with free films of the aqueous surfactant (Brij 96) show that thinning rates are markedly affected by the additives, but there is little effect on the equilibrium thickness of the films (ca 11 nm). Nonetheless the thickness at the transition from thick film to equilibrium black film decreases with increasing cloud point of the solution indicating increased stability. The importance of structure formation in the liquid film separating the emulsion globules was demonstrated.


Dec 1, 1969·The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology·P H Elworthy, A T Florence
Apr 1, 1971·The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology·A T Florence, J A Rogers
Dec 1, 1969·Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences·H Schott

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Aug 1, 1976·Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences·F W Goodhart, M L Eichman
Oct 1, 1985·International Journal of Cosmetic Science·G M Eccleston, A T Florence

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