Dec 21, 2018

Endogenous Viral Elements Are Widespread in Arthropod Genomes and Commonly Give Rise to PIWI-Interacting RNAs

Journal of Virology
Anneliek M Ter HorstBryce W Falk

Abstract

Arthropod genomes contain sequences derived from integrations of DNA and nonretroviral RNA viruses. These sequences, known as endogenous viral elements (EVEs), have been acquired over the course of evolution and have been proposed to serve as a record of past viral infections. Recent evidence indicates that EVEs can function as templates for the biogenesis of PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) in some mosquito species and cell lines, raising the possibility that EVEs may serve as a source of immunological memory in these organisms. However, whether piRNAs are derived from EVEs or serve an antiviral function in other arthropod species is unknown. Here, we used publicly available genome assemblies and small RNA sequencing data sets to characterize the repertoire and function of EVEs across 48 arthropod genomes. We found that EVEs are widespread in arthropod genomes and primarily correspond to unclassified single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses and viruses belonging to the Rhabdoviridae and Parvoviridae families. Additionally, EVEs were enriched in piRNA clusters in a majority of species, and we found that production of primary piRNAs from EVEs is common, particularly for EVEs located within piRNA clusters. While the abundance of EVEs wi...Continue Reading

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References

Mentioned in this Paper

Rhabdoviridae
Biochemical Pathway
Small Nuclear RNA
Virus
Virus Diseases
Genome
Sequence Determinations, RNA
RNA Viruses
Parvoviridae
Nucleic Acid Sequencing

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