PMID: 12397118Oct 25, 2002

Endovascular management of venous thrombotic diseases of the upper torso and extremities

Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology : JVIR
M J SharafuddinJamal J Hoballah

Abstract

Central venous thrombosis in the upper torso can be either primary, occurring as a result of longstanding extrinsic compression, or secondary, resulting from an acquired intrinsic occlusive disease or foreign body. As in lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT), anticoagulation therapy is the mainstay of therapy in upper torso and upper extremity DVT. However, in the presence of severely symptomatic acute thrombosis, pharmacologic and/or mechanical thrombolytic therapy represent the main invasive form of therapy for these conditions. After clearance of the acute thrombotic component, definitive management in patients with underlying anatomic abnormalities can be undertaken. Primary subclavian axillary vein thrombosis caused by extrinsic obstruction at the thoracic outlet is treated with thrombolytic therapy and anticoagulation followed by surgical decompression, whereas secondary causes of central venous obstruction and thrombosis are usually amenable to endovascular treatment with balloon angioplasty and stent placement. Postoperative interval anticoagulation is usually recommended. In addition to clinical follow-up, imaging follow-up with duplex sonography or conventional venography is usually recommended to assess the pres...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

Angioplasty, Balloon
Indirect Thrombin Inhibitors
Structure of Axillary Vein
Structure of Subclavian Vein
Superior Vena Cava Thrombosis
Radiography, Interventional
Angiography, Digital Subtraction
Thrombolytic Therapy
Decompression, Surgical
Deep Vein Thrombosis

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