PMID: 7086351Apr 1, 1982Paper

Energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. IV. Total mechanical energy changes as a function of speed and body size in birds and mammals

The Journal of Experimental Biology
N C HeglundG A Cavagna

Abstract

This is the final paper in or series examining the link between the energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. In this paper the kinetic energy of the limbs and body relative to the centre of mass (EKE, tot of paper two) is combined with the potential plus kinetic energy of the centre of mass (ECM, tot of paper three) to obtain the total mechanical energy (excluding elastic energy) of an animal during constant average-speed locomotion. The minimum mass-specific power required of the muscles and tendons to maintain the observed oscillations in total energy, Etot/Mb, can be described by one equation: Etot/Mb = 0.478 . vg 1.53 + 0.685 . vg + 0.072 where Etot/Mb is in W kg-1 and vg is in m s-1. This equation is independent of body size, applying equally as well to a chipmunk or a quail as to a horse or an ostrich. In marked contrast, the metabolic energy consumed by each gram of an animal as it moves along the ground at a constant speed increases linearly with speed and is proportional to Mb-0.3. Thus, we have found that each gram of tissue of a 30 g quail or chipmunk running at 3 m s-1 consumes metabolic energy at a rate about 15 times that of a 100 kg ostrich, horse or human running at the same speed while their muscles ...Continue Reading

Related Concepts

Kinematics
Aves
Energy Metabolism
Locomotion
Mathematics

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