Current therapies for autoimmune diseases rely on traditional immunosuppressive medications that expose patients to an increased risk of opportunistic infections and other complications. Immunoregulatory interventions that act prophylactically or therapeutically to induce antigen-specific tolerance might overcome these obstacles. Here we use the transpeptidase sortase to covalently attach disease-associated autoantigens to genetically engineered and to unmodified red blood cells as a means of inducing antigen-specific tolerance. This approach blunts the contribution to immunity of major subsets of immune effector cells (B cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells) in an antigen-specific manner. Transfusion of red blood cells expressing self-antigen epitopes can alleviate and even prevent signs of disease in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, as well as maintain normoglycemia in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes.
Antigen-driven tissue-specific suppression following oral tolerance: orally administered myelin basic protein suppresses proteolipid protein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the SJL mouse
Defective TCR expression in transgenic mice constructed using cDNA-based alpha- and beta-chain genes under the control of heterologous regulatory elements
Combination of gene delivery and DNA vaccination to protect from and reverse Th1 autoimmune disease via deviation to the Th2 pathway
Peripheral tolerance induction using ethylenecarbodiimide-fixed APCs uses both direct and indirect mechanisms of antigen presentation for prevention of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Critical role of macrophages in the marginal zone in the suppression of immune responses to apoptotic cell-associated antigens
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-expressing dendritic cells are involved in the generation of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in Peyer's patches in an orally tolerized, collagen-induced arthritis mouse model.
Cutting edge: Th1 cells facilitate the entry of Th17 cells to the central nervous system during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
In situ targeting of dendritic cells by antigen-loaded red blood cells: A novel approach to cancer immunotherapy
Tolerance induced by apoptotic antigen-coupled leukocytes is induced by PD-L1+ and IL-10-producing splenic macrophages and maintained by T regulatory cells
Treatment with MOG-DNA vaccines induces CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells and up-regulates genes with neuroprotective functions in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
IgG1+ ovalbumin-specific B-cell transnuclear mice show class switch recombination in rare allelically included B cells.
Microparticles bearing encephalitogenic peptides induce T-cell tolerance and ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Treg cell resistance to apoptosis in DNA vaccination for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis treatment
Isolation and functional characterization of human erythroblasts at distinct stages: implications for understanding of normal and disordered erythropoiesis in vivo.
Antigen-specific tolerance by autologous myelin peptide-coupled cells: a phase 1 trial in multiple sclerosis
Targeting of autoantigens to DEC205⁺ dendritic cells in vivo suppresses experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in mice
Differential uptake of nanoparticles and microparticles by pulmonary APC subsets induces discrete immunological imprints
A biodegradable nanoparticle platform for the induction of antigen-specific immune tolerance for treatment of autoimmune disease
Subcutaneous inverse vaccination with PLGA particles loaded with a MOG peptide and IL-10 decreases the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
One-step enzymatic modification of the cell surface redirects cellular cytotoxicity and parasite tropism
Plant-based oral tolerance to hemophilia therapy employs a complex immune regulatory response including LAP+CD4+ T cells.
Increasing the efficiency of precise genome editing with CRISPR-Cas9 by inhibition of nonhomologous end joining
Insulin B chain 9-23 gene transfer to hepatocytes protects from type 1 diabetes by inducing Ag-specific FoxP3+ Tregs
Generation of Ca2+-independent sortase A mutants with enhanced activity for protein and cell surface labeling
Approaches to inducing antigen-specific immune tolerance in allergy and autoimmunity: Focus on antigen-presenting cells and extracellular vesicles
Erythrocyte microRNA sequencing reveals differential expression in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis
Establishment of an erythroid progenitor cell line capable of enucleation achieved with an inducible c-Myc vector
Reversal of Hyperglycemia and Suppression of Type 1 Diabetes in the NOD Mouse with Apoptotic DNA Immunotherapy™ (ADi™), ADi-100
Genetically engineered red cells expressing single domain camelid antibodies confer long-term protection against botulinum neurotoxin
Vascular Drug Delivery Using Carrier Red Blood Cells: Focus on RBC Surface Loading and Pharmacokinetics.
Autoantigen-specific immune tolerance in pathological and physiological cell death: Nanotechnology comes into view.
PEGylation enables subcutaneously administered nanoparticles to induce antigen-specific immune tolerance.
Auto-antigen and Immunomodulatory Agent-Based Approaches for Antigen-Specific Tolerance in NOD Mice.
Mechanical Stress Induces Ca2+-Dependent Signal Transduction in Erythroblasts and Modulates Erythropoiesis.
Covalent conjugation of extracellular vesicles with peptides and nanobodies for targeted therapeutic delivery.
Advances on erythrocyte-mimicking nanovehicles to overcome barriers in biological microenvironments.
In vitro characterization of engineered red blood cells as viral traps against HIV-1 and SARS-CoV-2.
Surface loading of nanoparticles on engineered or natural erythrocytes for prolonged circulation time: strategies and applications.
Novel engineering: Biomimicking erythrocyte as a revolutionary platform for drugs and vaccines delivery.
The skin as an immune organ: Tolerance versus effector responses and applications to food allergy and hypersensitivity reactions
Efficient encapsulation of functional proteins into erythrocytes by controlled shear-mediated membrane deformation.
Induction of antigen-specific tolerance by nanobody-antigen adducts that target class-II major histocompatibility complexes.
An engineered protein-phosphorylation toggle network with implications for endogenous network discovery.
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are DNA sequences in the genome that are recognized and cleaved by CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas). CRISPR-Cas system enables the editing of genes to create or correct mutations. Discover the latest research on CRISPR here.
CRISPR Ribonucleases Deactivation
CRISPR-Cas system enables the editing of genes to create or correct mutations. This feed focuses on mechanisms that underlie deactivation of CRISPR ribonucleases. Here is the latest research.
Autoimmune diseases occur as a result of an attack by the immune system on the body’s own tissues resulting in damage and dysfunction. There are different types of autoimmune diseases, in which there is a complex and unknown interaction between genetics and the environment. Discover the latest research on autoimmune diseases here.
CRISPR for Genome Editing
Genome editing technologies enable the editing of genes to create or correct mutations. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are DNA sequences in the genome that are recognized and cleaved by CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas). Here is the latest research on the use of CRISPR-Cas system in gene editing.
B cell Tolerance
B cell tolerance is maintained through mechanisms that can reversibly or irreversibly silence autoreactive B lymphocytes. Here is the latest research.