Environmental and economic evaluation of remanufacturing lithium-ion batteries from electric vehicles

Waste Management
Siqin XiongXiaoming Ma


The environmental threats posed by spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and the future supply risks of battery components for electric vehicles can be simultaneously addressed by remanufacturing spent electric vehicle LIBs. To figure out the feasibility of battery remanufacturing, this paper quantifies the environmental impacts and costs of the remanufacturing of lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt oxide battery cells and compares the results with the production of batteries from virgin materials. Based on the EverBatt model, a China-specific database of hydrometallurgical remanufacturing process is established. The results indicate that the reductions in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by battery remanufacturing are 8.55% and 6.62%, respectively. From the economic standpoint, the potential cost-saving from battery remanufacturing is approximately $1.87 kg-1 cell produced. Through a sensitivity analysis, LIB remanufacturing is found to be economically viable until the purchase price of spent batteries rises to $2.87 kg-1. Furthermore, the impact of battery type variability is prominent, whereas the influence of recovery efficiency is limited.


Apr 22, 2011·Environmental Science & Technology·Guillaume Majeau-BettezAnders Hammer Strømman
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Oct 29, 2015·Nature·Erica Gies

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