Co-dependent geological and climatic changes obscure how species interact in deep time. The interplay between these environmental factors makes it hard to discern whether ecological competition exerts an upper limit on species richness. Here, using the exceptional fossil record of Cenozoic Era macroperforate planktonic foraminifera, we assess the evidence for alternative modes of macroevolutionary competition. Our models support an environmentally dependent macroevolutionary form of contest competition that yields finite upper bounds on species richness. Models of biotic competition assuming unchanging environmental conditions were overwhelmingly rejected. In the best-supported model, temperature affects the per-lineage diversification rate, while both temperature and an environmental driver of sediment accumulation defines the upper limit. The support for contest competition implies that incumbency constrains species richness by restricting niche availability, and that the number of macroevolutionary niches varies as a function of environmental changes.
Effects of treatment with amphetamine and diazepam on Mycobacterium bovis-induced infection in hamsters
New effects in light scattering in disordered media and coherent backscattering cone: systems of magnetic particles
The causes of species richness patterns across space, time, and clades and the role of "ecological limits"
Ecological interactions on macroevolutionary time scales: clams and brachiopods are more than ships that pass in the night
The uncertain role of diversity dependence in species diversification and the need to incorporate time-varying carrying capacities
Speciation below ground: Tempo and mode of diversification in a radiation of endogean ground beetles
Detecting Environment-Dependent Diversification From Phylogenies: A Simulation Study and Some Empirical Illustrations
The role of dietary competition in the origination and early diversification of North American euprimates
Estimating Diversity Through Time Using Molecular Phylogenies: Old and Species-Poor Frog Families are the Remnants of a Diverse Past
Alteration of (Frequency-Dependent) Fitness in Time-Shift Experiments Reveals Cryptic Coevolution and Uncoordinated Stasis in a Virtual Jurassic Park
Live fast, diversify non-adaptively: evolutionary diversification of exceptionally short-lived annual killifishes
The Great American Biotic Interchange revisited: a new perspective from the stable isotope record of Argentine Pampas fossil mammals.
Multi-scale interplays of biotic and abiotic drivers shape mammalian sub-continental diversity over millions of years
Common species link global ecosystems to climate change: dynamical evidence in the planktonic fossil record
Biodiversity refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth. Biodiversity is typically a measure of variation at the genetic, species, and ecosystem level.Discover the latest research on biodiversity data here.