PMID: 10837554Jun 6, 2000Paper

Enzyme-catalyzed processes of first-pass hepatic and intestinal drug extraction

Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
D D ShenK E Thummel

Abstract

Oral bioavailability of pharmacologically effective drugs is often limited by first-pass biotransformation. In humans, both hepatic and intestinal enzymes can catalyze the metabolism of a drug as it transits between the gastrointestinal lumen and systemic blood for the first time. Although a spectrum of drug biotransformations can occur during first-pass, the most common are oxidations catalyzed by cytochromes P450. It is the isozymes CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 that are most often implicated in first-pass drug elimination. For any given substrate, enzyme specificity, enzyme content, substrate binding affinity and sensitivity to irreversible catalytic events all play a role in determining the overall efficiency, or intrinsic clearance, of elimination. Several models have been proposed over the past twenty-five years that mathematically describe the process of drug extraction across the liver. The most widely used, the well-stirred model, has also been considered for depiction of first-pass drug elimination across the intestinal wall. With these models it has been possible to examine sources of interindividual variability in drug bioavailability including, variable constitutive enzyme expression (both genetic and ...Continue Reading

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