Jul 12, 2005

EphrinB2 is the entry receptor for Nipah virus, an emergent deadly paramyxovirus

Nature
Oscar A NegreteBenhur Lee

Abstract

Nipah virus (NiV) is an emergent paramyxovirus that causes fatal encephalitis in up to 70 percent of infected patients, and there is evidence of human-to-human transmission. Endothelial syncytia, comprised of multinucleated giant-endothelial cells, are frequently found in NiV infections, and are mediated by the fusion (F) and attachment (G) envelope glycoproteins. Identification of the receptor for this virus will shed light on the pathobiology of NiV infection, and spur the rational development of effective therapeutics. Here we report that ephrinB2, the membrane-bound ligand for the EphB class of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), specifically binds to the attachment (G) glycoprotein of NiV. Soluble Fc-fusion proteins of ephrinB2, but not ephrinB1, effectively block NiV fusion and entry into permissive cell types. Moreover, transfection of ephrinB2 into non-permissive cells renders them permissive for NiV fusion and entry. EphrinB2 is expressed on endothelial cells and neurons, which is consistent with the known cellular tropism for NiV. Significantly, we find that NiV-envelope-mediated infection of microvascular endothelial cells and primary cortical rat neurons is inhibited by soluble ephrinB2, but not by the related ephrinB...Continue Reading

  • References25
  • Citations199

Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

Nipah Virus
Transfection
Giant Cells
Glycoproteins
Neurons
Tertiary Protein Structure
Mumps Virus Fusion Protein
Spur (Body Structure)
Plasma Protein Binding Capacity
Soluble

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