Epidemiologic background of hand hygiene and evaluation of the most important agents for scrubs and rubs

Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Günter Kampf, Axel Kramer

Abstract

The etiology of nosocomial infections, the frequency of contaminated hands with the different nosocomial pathogens, and the role of health care workers' hands during outbreaks suggest that a hand hygiene preparation should at least have activity against bacteria, yeasts, and coated viruses. The importance of efficacy in choosing the right hand hygiene product is reflected in the new Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline on hand hygiene (J. M. Boyce and D. Pittet, Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 51:1-45, 2002). The best antimicrobial efficacy can be achieved with ethanol (60 to 85%), isopropanol (60 to 80%), and n-propanol (60 to 80%). The activity is broad and immediate. Ethanol at high concentrations (e.g., 95%) is the most effective treatment against naked viruses, whereas n-propanol seems to be more effective against the resident bacterial flora. The combination of alcohols may have a synergistic effect. The antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine (2 to 4%) and triclosan (1 to 2%) is both lower and slower. Additionally, both agents have a risk of bacterial resistance, which is higher for chlorhexidine than triclosan. Their activity is often supported by the mechanical removal of pathogens during hand washing. Taking ...Continue Reading

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Nov 28, 2002·Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology : the Official Journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America·Steven E BrooksPatrick Coonan
Dec 4, 2002·American Journal of Infection Control·National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System
Dec 11, 2002·The Journal of Hospital Infection·Günter KampfM Rudolf
Dec 17, 2002·Symposium Series·Keith Poole
Jan 8, 2003·Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology : the Official Journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America·J BoyceHealthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. Association for P
Jan 28, 2003·American Journal of Infection Control·J CimiottiElaine Larson
Feb 1, 2003·Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology : the Official Journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America·Lorena SoletoPatrick Van der Stuyft
Mar 14, 2003·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·David J WeberWilliam A Rutala
Mar 28, 2003·The Journal of Hospital Infection·M-L McLaws, P C Taylor
Mar 28, 2003·The Journal of Hospital Infection·R GaneswireS D Puthucheary
Mar 28, 2003·The Journal of Hospital Infection·Günter Kampf, C Ostermeyer
Apr 1, 2003·American Journal of Infection Control·Danielle Drankiewicz, Lauren Dundes
Apr 1, 2003·American Journal of Infection Control·Elaine LarsonBruce H Keswick
Apr 1, 2003·American Journal of Infection Control·Jessica HilburnPatricia A Groziak
Apr 10, 2003·Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology : the Official Journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America·Sasi DharanDidier Pittet
Apr 10, 2003·Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology : the Official Journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America·Lona ModyCarol A Kauffman
Apr 10, 2003·Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology : the Official Journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America·Samuel M BrownEdward J O'Rourke
Apr 10, 2003·Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology : the Official Journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America·Pedro M OlaecheaENVIN-UCI Study Group
Apr 10, 2003·Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology : the Official Journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America·Melike Tunçay EkizogluDeniz Gür
Apr 23, 2003·Journal of Community Health·Elaine LarsonSusan Lin
May 17, 2003·Journal of Epidemiology·Derek Richard SmithZentaro Yamagata
Jun 10, 2003·Pediatric Critical Care Medicine : a Journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies·S HarbarthD A Goldmann
Jun 25, 2003·Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases·Thomas A Clark, Rana A Hajjeh
Jul 12, 2003·The Journal of Hospital Infection·Günter Kampf, M Kapella
Aug 16, 2003·The Journal of Hospital Infection·A E AielloElaine Larson
Jun 1, 1954·British Journal of Pharmacology and Chemotherapy·G E DAVIESG SWAIN
Jan 8, 1955·British Medical Journal·J MURRAY, R M CALMAN
Apr 1, 1958·Journal of General Microbiology·B A PETHICA
May 1, 1961·Archives of Dermatology·K LOEWENTHAL
Feb 23, 1963·British Medical Journal·R HARES GASH
Sep 10, 1963·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·A J ISQUITH, W R CHESBRO
Jul 25, 1964·British Medical Journal·E J LowburyJ P Bull
Jun 1, 1965·American Journal of Surgery·C W WALTER
May 14, 1960·British Medical Journal·E J Lowbury, H A Lilly
Sep 27, 2003·Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology : the Official Journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America·Ann TammelinUlrika Ransjö
Oct 8, 2003·The Journal of Hospital Infection·N KhannaAndreas F Widmer
Oct 24, 2003·The Journal of Hospital Infection·R P Hobson
Oct 24, 2003·The Journal of Hospital Infection·E PiednoirO Bajolet
Nov 1, 2003·The Lancet Infectious Diseases·Philippe EggimannDidier Pittet
Nov 25, 2003·International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health·Günter Kampf
Nov 25, 2003·The Journal of Hospital Infection·E Kownatzki
Nov 25, 2003·The Journal of Hospital Infection·Günter Kampf, M Muscatiello
Jan 17, 2004·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Oscar MarchettiFungal Infection Network of Switzerland
Oct 1, 1950·The Journal of Investigative Dermatology·C A EVANSE R GIBLETT
Nov 1, 1951·The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology·C E COULTHARDG SYKES
Mar 5, 2004·Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology : the Official Journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America·Anita BhallaCurtis J Donskey
Mar 17, 2004·The Journal of Hospital Infection·S S El ShafieM Leni Garcia
Apr 28, 2004·The Journal of Hospital Infection·Günter Kampf
Apr 28, 2004·The Journal of Hospital Infection·M Rotter
Apr 1, 1950·Journal of Dental Research·M P PROMBO, E B TILDEN
Aug 1, 1950·Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences·H E MORTON
May 11, 1963·British Medical Journal·E J LowburyJ P Bull
Dec 13, 2012·The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease : the Official Journal of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease·M DaraInternational Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease

Citations

Jul 5, 2005·Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete·Axel KramerGünter Kampf
Aug 12, 2009·European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases : Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology·Günter Kampf, C Ostermeyer
May 4, 2005·The Journal of Hospital Infection·Günter KampfJ Steinmann
Jun 1, 2005·The Journal of Hospital Infection·Holger RabenauH W Doerr
Jan 9, 2010·Epidemiology and Infection·S S Y WongK Y Yuen
Jul 4, 2009·The Journal of Antibiotics·Junji OkunishiMasahiro Ikeda
Aug 8, 2009·British Dental Journal·Anthony BlinkhornG J Seymour
Aug 19, 2007·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Allison E AielloStuart B Levy
Jan 1, 2009·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·M Lindsay GraysonChristopher Birch
Oct 22, 2008·Journal of Endourology·Geoffrey R WignallPeter A Cadieux
Jul 27, 2012·The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy·Carolyne HornerMark Wilcox
Nov 16, 2011·The American Journal of Nursing·Nils-Olaf HübnerOjan Assadian
Nov 4, 2010·The Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing·Anne Korhonen
Jan 10, 2012·Journal of Infusion Nursing : the Official Publication of the Infusion Nurses Society·Yutaka NishiharaTakashi Okubo
Apr 14, 2010·Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing : Official Publication of the Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society·Anna-Clara RönnerBertil Kaijser
Dec 21, 2005·Contact Dermatitis·Günter KampfKlaus-Peter Wilhelm
Sep 10, 2009·Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy·Mirja ReichelGünter Kampf
Mar 21, 2012·Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy·Joe LatimerAndrew J McBain
Nov 26, 2009·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Pengbo LiuChristine L Moe
Sep 8, 2006·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Ming-Show WongHsin-Hou Chang
Jun 6, 2006·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Günter KampfDaryl Paulson
Dec 3, 2004·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Günter Kampf, C Ostermeyer
Jun 14, 2013·Archives of Disease in Childhood·Joe BrownJeroen H J Ensink
Oct 12, 2013·BMC Infectious Diseases·Günter KampfMuhammad Bashir
Jan 24, 2008·Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials·Günter Kampf, Angela Hollingsworth
Nov 19, 2008·Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology·Dirk W Lachenmeier
Jun 14, 2013·Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control·Günter KampfMiranda Suchomel
Jun 15, 2011·AAPS PharmSciTech·Tippawan SiritientongPornanong Aramwit
Mar 13, 2008·Environmental Health Perspectives·Antonia M CalafatLarry L Needham
Oct 25, 2012·Infection and Drug Resistance·Johan ThamInga Odenholt
Oct 16, 2010·International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health·Vincent BessonneauOlivier Thomas
Apr 21, 2010·Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology·Elizabeth MathaiDidier Pittet
Dec 27, 2011·The Indian Journal of Medical Research·Purva Mathur
Feb 6, 2010·The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene·Amy J PickeringJennifer Davis
Mar 8, 2013·Future Microbiology·Steven E Fiester, Luis A Actis
Nov 20, 2013·Antonie van Leeuwenhoek·M José Grande BurgosRosario Lucas López
Feb 5, 2013·Future Microbiology·Nathalia Murillo, Didier Raoult
May 20, 2014·American Journal of Infection Control·Ernestina Azor-MartinezFrancisco Gimenez-Sanchez
Jul 8, 2014·Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease·Samir BenkouitenPhilippe Gautret
Apr 2, 2014·Burns : Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries·M E H JaspersB M W Diederen
Dec 3, 2014·AORN Journal·David MacingaRobert R McCormack
Oct 14, 2014·Euro Surveillance : Bulletin Européen Sur Les Maladies Transmissibles = European Communicable Disease Bulletin·N CassirL Papazian
Jun 24, 2014·Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases·Mustafa YildirimCigdem Ozaydin
Mar 29, 2011·Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection = Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran Za Zhi·Gulcin BayramogluYakup Aslan
May 7, 2014·Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan Yi Zhi·Vincent C C ChengKwok-Yung Yuen
Aug 3, 2013·Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiología clínica·José Antonio Martinez, Tomàs Pumarola
Dec 1, 2015·Journal of Applied Microbiology·Patrick T Kimmitt, Keith F Redway
May 3, 2013·American Journal of Infection Control·Sally F Bloomfield, Elizabeth A Scott
Feb 6, 2013·American Journal of Infection Control·Juan H MaciasAlejandro E Macias
Feb 26, 2013·The Journal of Hospital Infection·Miranda SuchomelMichael Kundi
Feb 3, 2012·The Journal of Hospital Infection·S J SmithS J Dancer
Oct 29, 2011·Nanomedicine : Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine·Wen-Ku ChangHsin-Hou Chang
Jan 8, 2016·Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology·Mei-Fei Yueh, Robert H Tukey
Jul 12, 2011·American Journal of Infection Control·Harald BelowAxel Kramer
Feb 14, 2015·Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection = Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran Za Zhi·Wen-Chan HuangLi-Min Huang
Apr 5, 2011·American Journal of Infection Control·Rishi DesaiLoren G Miller
Apr 6, 2011·Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases·Mariana RosenthalBetsy Foxman
Mar 2, 2011·The Journal of Infection·Vincent C C ChengK Y Yuen
Feb 15, 2011·Infectious Disease Clinics of North America·Maureen K Bolon
Jan 5, 2011·Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiología clínica·José Sánchez, Paz Rodríguez
Dec 7, 2010·Médecine et maladies infectieuses·P SacleuxE Chamorey
Jun 1, 2010·Dermatologic Clinics·William Abramovits, Patricia Granowski
Jan 12, 2010·The Journal of Hospital Infection·M GuilhermettiC Luiz Cardoso
Sep 1, 2009·The Journal of Hospital Infection·Andreas F WidmerDidier Pittet
Aug 29, 2009·Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics·Marion W EvansJames Brantingham
Dec 29, 2015·Journal of Infection and Public Health·Jonas P Cruz, Meshrif A Bashtawi
Mar 3, 2009·American Journal of Infection Control·Lílian Alves RochaPaulo Pinto Gontijo Filho
Feb 3, 2009·American Journal of Infection Control·Didier LepelletierChristèle Gras-Leguen
Nov 11, 2008·Applied Nursing Research : ANR·Sevim Celik, Sema Koçaşli
Dec 5, 2008·The Journal of Hospital Infection·Günter Kampf
Oct 14, 2008·Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology·Michael J MessinaEliot N Mostow
Jun 3, 2008·The Journal of Hospital Infection·Luke T Curtis
Jun 10, 2008·American Journal of Infection Control·Günter KampfThomas Kohlmann
Oct 26, 2007·Medical Hypotheses·Gadi Borkow, Jeffrey Gabbay
Mar 24, 2006·Journal of Travel Medicine·Paul F LongLarry I Goodyer
Nov 15, 2006·The Journal of Hospital Infection·Günter Kampf
Nov 2, 2015·Clinical Therapeutics·Richard I Shader
May 15, 2009·The British Journal of Dermatology·M DulonA Nienhaus
Dec 17, 2008·Dermatologic Therapy·Donatella SchenaGiampiero Girolomoni
Jun 21, 2007·The British Journal of Dermatology·Harald LöfflerH I Maibach
Apr 16, 2009·Nursing in Critical Care·Onno K Helder, Jos M Latour
Sep 4, 2010·Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG·Günter Kampf, Harald Löffler
Jul 9, 2011·Veterinary Surgery : VS·Denis R VerwilghenGünter Kampf
Jun 29, 2012·BJU International·Bastian AmendKarl-Dietrich Sievert
Apr 16, 2011·Journal of Clinical Nursing·Janita P-C ChauSharon W M Pang
Jun 14, 2012·International Journal of Cosmetic Science·M O Visscher, R Randall Wickett
Mar 13, 2012·Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG·G DaeschleinMichael Jünger
Feb 15, 2014·Journal of Applied Microbiology·T Martínez-BastidasC Chaidez
Oct 4, 2006·American Journal of Infection Control·Philip C CarlingJeannette Perkins
Mar 7, 2006·The Journal of Hospital Infection·Günter Kampf
Mar 7, 2006·The Journal of Hospital Infection·M P TavolacciP Czernichow
Feb 21, 2006·International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health·Nils-Olaf HübnerAxel Kramer
Nov 2, 2005·American Journal of Infection Control·Elaine Larson
Sep 13, 2005·American Journal of Infection Control·Günter Kampf, Axel Kramer
Jul 20, 2005·Médecine et maladies infectieuses·B BrangerB Lejeune
Dec 19, 2006·The Journal of Hospital Infection·M J StonerB K Bonsu
Apr 5, 2011·Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology : the Official Journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America·Vincent C C ChengK Y Yuen
Apr 26, 2011·Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology : the Official Journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America·Rachel R BaileyBruce Y Lee
Feb 5, 2011·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·Myriam OuberaiMarie-Paule Mingeot-Leclercq
Mar 29, 2011·The Veterinary Journal·Günter Kampf, Andreas F Widmer