PMID: 9391152Feb 12, 1998

Epilepsy in mice deficient in the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
S F KashS Baekkeskov

Abstract

gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, is synthesized by two glutamate decarboxylase isoforms, GAD65 and GAD67. The separate role of the two isoforms is unknown, but differences in saturation with cofactor and subcellular localization suggest that GAD65 may provide reserve pools of GABA for regulation of inhibitory neurotransmission. We have disrupted the gene encoding GAD65 and backcrossed the mutation into the C57BL/6 strain of mice. In contrast to GAD67-/- animals, which are born with developmental abnormalities and die shortly after birth, GAD65-/- mice appear normal at birth. Basal GABA levels and holo-GAD activity are normal, but the pyridoxal 5' phosphate-inducible apo-enzyme reservoir is significantly decreased. GAD65-/- mice develop spontaneous seizures that result in increased mortality. Seizures can be precipitated by fear or mild stress. Seizure susceptibility is dramatically increased in GAD65-/- mice backcrossed into a second genetic background, the nonobese diabetic (NOD/LtJ) strain of mice enabling electroencephalogram analysis of the seizures. The generally higher basal brain GABA levels in this backcross are significantly decreased by the GAD65-/- mutation...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

Establishment and Maintenance of Localization
Biochemical Pathway
Limbic System
Biological Neural Networks
Immunoreactivity
Electroencephalography
GAD1
C57BL/6 Mouse
Epilepsy
Brain

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