Mar 31, 2020

Equine Facial Action Coding System for determination of pain-related facial responses in videos of horses

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Maheen RashidPia H Andersen

Abstract

During the last decade, pain scales including facial expressions as indicators of pain have been developed for horses, mostly relying on direct observations or inspection of images. Despite differences in the research conditions and methodology the different scales focus on the same regions of the face, corresponding to moveable facial muscles related to the ears, eyes, nostrils, lips and chin. However, a detailed comparison of the facial activities occurring during pain is not possible. We used a Facial Action Coding System modified for horses to code and analyse video recordings from an earlier study of acute short-term experimental pain and from clinical cases with and without pain. We demonstrated for the first time EquiFACS based changes to pain in video of horses, using traditional statistical methods based on frequency, and novel analyses based on sliding observation windows and co-occurrence of facial actions. The most prominent differences of the experimental horses were related to the lower face actions chin raiser and nostril dilator, while less prominent, but significantly more frequent actions were related to the eye region, inner brow raiser (AU101), increased eye white (AD1), half blink (AU47), and ear rotator (E...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Study
Biochemical Pathway
Positioning Attribute
Hierarchy
Parakeets
Myiopsitta monachus
Genus Aratinga (organism)
Memory
Decision

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