ER stress associated TXNIP-NLRP3 inflammasome activation in hippocampus of human Alzheimer's disease.

Neurochemistry International
Saifudeen IsmaelTauheed Ishrat

Abstract

Although the exact etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is poorly understood, experimental and clinical evidences suggest the contribution of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of AD. Pathologically, AD brain is characterized by an imbalance in redox status, elevated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, synaptic dysfunction, inflammation, and progressive neurodegeneration. It has been noted that continuous accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in AD brain trigger ER stress, which contributes to neurodegeneration. Similarly, experimental evidences supports the hypothesis that thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), an endogenous regulator of redox regulator thioredoxin (TRX), is activated by ER stress and contributes to activation of NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor protein 3) inflammatory cascade in hippocampus of the AD brain. Hippocampus of postmortem human AD and aged matched non-AD controls were analyzed for the expression ER stress markers and TXNIP-NLRP3 inflammasome at cellular and molecular levels. We found higher expression of TXNIP at protein and transcript levels in close association with pathological markers of AD such as Aβ and NFTs in AD hippocampus. In addition, our results ...Continue Reading

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