Estimation of inbreeding coefficients from genotypic data on multiple alleles, and application to estimation of clonality in malaria parasites

Genetical Research
W G HillDavid Walliker


Methods for estimating probability of identity by descent (f) are derived for data on numbers of genotypes at single loci and at pairs of loci with many alleles at each locus. The methods are general, but are specifically applied to data on genotype frequencies in zygotes of the malaria parasite sampled from its mosquito host in order to find the extent of outcrossing in the parasite and the degree of clonality in populations. It is assumed that zygotes are the outcome either of gametes of the same clone, in which they are identical at all loci, or are products of two random, unrelated clones. From the estimate of f an effective number of clones per human host can also be derived. For Plasmodium falciparum from a Tanzanian village, estimates of f are 0.33 from data on zygote frequencies at two multiallelic loci, indicating that two-thirds of zygotes produce recombinant type.


Feb 1, 1996·Trends in Ecology & Evolution·H C Godfray, J H Werren
Oct 9, 1998·Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene·M J Mackinnon, Ian M Hastings
Aug 18, 1999·Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene·Hamza A BabikerDavid Walliker
Nov 23, 2000·Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology·M MenegonP Alano
Jul 20, 2000·Parasitology Today·Ian M Hastings, Umberto D'Alessandro
Jul 28, 2004·Parasitology Today·Ian M Hastings, B Wedgwood-Oppenheim
Oct 17, 2006·Parasitology Today·R E Paul, K P Day
Feb 15, 2003·Trends in Parasitology·Ian M Hastings
May 31, 2002·Trends in Parasitology·Daniel L HartlElizabeth A Winzeler
Jun 23, 2012·Nature·Magnus ManskeDominic P Kwiatkowski
May 2, 2007·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Zeinab AnnanFrançois Renaud
Apr 14, 1999·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·D J ConwayB M Greenwood
Oct 1, 1996·The Journal of Cell Biology·F GuinetT E Wellems
Jan 22, 1997·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·M J Mackinnon
Jan 22, 1997·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·C Dye, B G Williams
Apr 6, 2002·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·S NeeA F Read
Jan 24, 2008·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·J M Pemberton
Mar 9, 2012·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·Standwell C NkhomaTim J C Anderson
Jun 12, 1999·Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences·N White
Jan 17, 2004·Clinical Microbiology Reviews·Ambrose O TalisunaUmberto D'Alessandro
Sep 8, 2005·PLoS Biology·Jianbing MuXin-Zhuan Su
Jul 20, 2007·PloS One·Themba MzilahowaIan M Hastings
Sep 15, 2005·Molecular Ecology·A D J OverallJ M Pemberton
Apr 21, 2007·Tissue Antigens·José M Nunes
Jun 15, 2007·Molecular Ecology·Patrice DavidJérôme Goudet
Aug 23, 2005·Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases·Ambrose O TalisunaUmberto D'Alessandro
Aug 25, 1999·Current Opinion in Microbiology·T E WellemsD A Fidock
Sep 20, 2008·Trends in Parasitology·Hamza A BabikerSarah E Reece
May 12, 2016·Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases·Salama Al-HamidhiHamza A Babiker
Oct 16, 2015·PloS One·Salama Al-HamidhiHamza A Babiker
Apr 29, 2005·Acta Tropica·Hamza A BabikerDavid Walliker
Oct 27, 2001·Tropical Medicine & International Health : TM & IH·S JordanE M Christophel
Jun 22, 1995·Proceedings. Biological Sciences·A F ReadS Nee


Jan 1, 1979·Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene·P F BorehamT Matsushima
Jun 15, 1991·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·M TibayrencFrancisco J Ayala
Dec 1, 1991·Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology·L C Ranford-CartwrightDavid Walliker
Sep 1, 1991·Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene·Hamza A BabikerDavid Walliker
Jul 7, 1990·Lancet·C C Blackwell, D M Weir
May 1, 1990·The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene·A CreaseyDavid Walliker
Mar 1, 1989·Diabetes/metabolism Reviews·R R WolfeW H Hartl
Jan 1, 1986·Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene·C F Curtis, L N Otoo
Jan 1, 1973·Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene·R Carter, I A McGregor
Jun 1, 1973·Genetical Research·B S Weir, C C Cockerham
Jan 1, 1984·Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene·S ThaithongDavid Walliker
Nov 1, 1994·Parasitology·Hamza A BabikerDavid Walliker
Jul 1, 1993·Parasitology·L C Ranford-CartwrightDavid Walliker
Jul 1, 1993·Medical and Veterinary Entomology·S GokoolD F Smith
Mar 7, 1993·Journal of Theoretical Biology·C Dye, H C Godfray
Mar 1, 1957·Annals of Human Genetics·C A SMITH
Mar 1, 1990·Parasitology Today·A Tait, C M Turner
Jul 1, 1992·Parasitology Today·T TrigliaD J Kemp
Jun 1, 1978·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·Donald A Levin

Related Concepts

Likelihood Functions
Genes, Protozoan
Sib Mating
Genetic Equilibrium
Structure of Zygote
Plasmodium falciparum
Clone Cells

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Sexual Dimorphism in Neurodegeneration

There exist sex differences in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. For instance, multiple sclerosis is more common in women, whereas Parkinson’s disease is more common in men. Here is the latest research on sexual dimorphism in neurodegeneration

HLA Genetic Variation

HLA genetic variation has been found to confer risk for a wide variety of diseases. Identifying these associations and understanding their molecular mechanisms is ongoing and holds promise for the development of therapeutics. Find the latest research on HLA genetic variation here.

Super-resolution Microscopy

Super-resolution microscopy is the term commonly given to fluorescence microscopy techniques with resolutions that are not limited by the diffraction of light. Here are the latest discoveries pertaining to super-resolution microscopy.

Genetic Screens in iPSC-derived Brain Cells

Genetic screening is a critical tool that can be employed to define and understand gene function and interaction. This feed focuses on genetic screens conducted using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain cells.

Brain Lower Grade Glioma

Low grade gliomas in the brain form from oligodendrocytes and astrocytes and are the slowest-growing glioma in adults. Discover the latest research on these brain tumors here.

CD4/CD8 Signaling

Cluster of differentiation 4 and 8 (CD8 and CD8) are glycoproteins founds on the surface of immune cells. Here is the latest research on their role in cell signaling pathways.

Alignment-free Sequence Analysis Tools

Alignment-free sequence analyses have been applied to problems ranging from whole-genome phylogeny to the classification of protein families, identification of horizontally transferred genes, and detection of recombined sequences. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.