PMID: 7337818Jan 1, 1981Paper

Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine?

Bio Systems
T Cavalier-Smith


The primary taxa of eukaryote classification should be monophyletic and based on fundamental cell structure rather than nutritional adaptive zones. The classical two kingdom classification into "plants" and "animals" and the newer four kingdom classifications into "protis", "fungi" "animals" and "plants" are therefore both unsatisfactory. Eukaryotes can be classified into nine kingdoms each defined in terms of a unique constellation of cell structures. Five kingdoms have plate-like mitochondrial cristae: (1) Eufungi (the non-ciliated fungi, which unlike the other eight kingdoms have unstacked Golgi cisternae), (2) Ciliofungi (the posteriorly ciliated fungi), (3) Animalia (Animals, sponges, mesozoa, and choanociliates; phagotrophs with basically posterior ciliation), (4) Biliphyta (Non-phagotrophic, phycobilisome-containing, algae; i.e. theGlaucophyceae and Rhodophyceae), (5) Viridiplantae (Non-phagotrophic green plants, with starch-containing plastids). Kingdom (6), the Euglenozoa, has disc-shaped cristae and an intraciliary dense rod and may be phagotrophic and/or phototrophic with plastids with three-membraned envelopes. Kingdom (7), the cryptophyta, has flattened tubular cristae, tubular mastigonemes on both cilia,m and star...Continue Reading


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