PMID: 7337818Jan 1, 1981Paper

Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine?

Bio Systems
T Cavalier-Smith

Abstract

The primary taxa of eukaryote classification should be monophyletic and based on fundamental cell structure rather than nutritional adaptive zones. The classical two kingdom classification into "plants" and "animals" and the newer four kingdom classifications into "protis", "fungi" "animals" and "plants" are therefore both unsatisfactory. Eukaryotes can be classified into nine kingdoms each defined in terms of a unique constellation of cell structures. Five kingdoms have plate-like mitochondrial cristae: (1) Eufungi (the non-ciliated fungi, which unlike the other eight kingdoms have unstacked Golgi cisternae), (2) Ciliofungi (the posteriorly ciliated fungi), (3) Animalia (Animals, sponges, mesozoa, and choanociliates; phagotrophs with basically posterior ciliation), (4) Biliphyta (Non-phagotrophic, phycobilisome-containing, algae; i.e. theGlaucophyceae and Rhodophyceae), (5) Viridiplantae (Non-phagotrophic green plants, with starch-containing plastids). Kingdom (6), the Euglenozoa, has disc-shaped cristae and an intraciliary dense rod and may be phagotrophic and/or phototrophic with plastids with three-membraned envelopes. Kingdom (7), the cryptophyta, has flattened tubular cristae, tubular mastigonemes on both cilia,m and star...Continue Reading

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Citations

Jul 1, 1990·Journal of Molecular Evolution·R DevereuxG E Fox
Apr 1, 1991·Journal of Molecular Evolution·D L NanneyE M Simon
Mar 25, 2006·Journal of Molecular Evolution·Thomas Cavalier-Smith, Ema E-Y Chao
Jan 1, 1996·Advances in Space Research : the Official Journal of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR)·D Moore
Jan 1, 1983·Bio Systems·A B McQuade
Jan 1, 1984·Bio Systems·J O Corliss
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Jan 1, 1991·Bio Systems·M Sherwood-Pike
Jan 1, 1992·Bio Systems·T Cavalier-Smith
May 17, 2006·Trends in Ecology & Evolution·Casey L McGrath, Laura A Katz
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Feb 16, 2011·Parasitology·Giselle WalkerJoel B Dacks
Nov 22, 1994·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·T Cavalier-SmithE E Chao
Oct 30, 2010·Molecular Biology and Evolution·Philippe DeschampsDavid Moreira
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Dec 11, 2014·Nature Communications·John W StillerJinling Huang

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